Tuesday, October 30, 2012

The migrant’s eye — Shaun Tan @ Thu May 05 2011

May 05, 2011

MAY 5 — Below is the entry by
Shaun Tan, one of the finalists in the World Bank 2011 Essay Competition, on the brain drain issue.

"Our young people represent the future of our country." This phrase has been echoed by almost every politician in almost every country in modern history. However the changes instigated by the increasing ease of migration are such that not even this time-honoured cliché holds the weight it once did. Young people still represent the future, but it is the future of whichever country they decide to settle in or impact, which may or may not be their country of origin. As with most changes, there are new benefits and drawbacks, and new winners and losers. Among the most pressing questions countries now face are how to prevent their young people from migrating, and how far they should go in providing for the migrants residing within their borders.
Full story: http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/breakingviews/article/the-migrants-eye-shaun-tan

Malaysian Water Sport

Life of Singaporeans

Sunday, October 28, 2012

Testimony of Dr Richard Teo...Thoughts of Life, Wealth, Success & Happiness



Embedded code disabled for this so view here: 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=umLkfADe17s


Dr Richard Teo Keng Siang

Recorded at the Dental Christian Fellowship , on 24 Nov 2011, 8 months after his diagnosis.

Richard would have liked to share this with you. We are doing this to continue his work. 

Below is the transcript of the talk of Dr. Richard Teo, who was a 40-year-old millionaire and cosmetic surgeon with a stage-4 lung cancer, sharing at a Dental Christian Fellowship Meeting. He would have liked to share this with you too.

HIS BACKGROUND

Hi good morning to all of you. My voice is a bit hoarse from the chemotherapy, so please bear with me. I thought I'll just introduce myself. My name is Richard, I’m a friend of Danny’s, who invited me here.

I’d just begin to say that I’m a typical product of today’s society. Before this, I was talking about how the media influences us etc. So I’m a typical product of what the media portrays. From young, I’ve always been under the influence and impression that to be happy, is to be successful. And to be successful, is to be wealthy. So I led my life according to this motto.

Coming from a poor average family, back in those days, I was highly competitive, whether in sports, studies, leadership. I wanted it all. I’ve been there, done that. But at the end of the day, it’s still about money.

So in my recent last years, I was a trainee in ophthalmology, but I was getting impatient, cos I had friends of mine who were going out into private practise, making tonnes of money. And there I was, stuck in a traineeship. So I said, ‘Enough, it’s getting too long.’ At that time, there was a surge in protégés of aesthetic medicine. I’m sure you’re aware, aesthetic medicine had peaked over the last few years, and I saw good money in there. So much so that I said, ‘Forget about ophthalmology, I’m gonna do aesthetic medicine.’ So that’s what I did.

The truth is, nobody makes heroes out of the average GP in the neighbourhood. They don't. They make heroes out of rich celebrities, politicians, rich and famous people. So I wanted to be one of these. I dived straight into aesthetic medicine. People were not willing to pay when I was doing locum back in those days. Anything more than $30, they would complain that “Wah, this lo kun (doctor) jing qwee (very expensive)”. They made noise and they were not happy. But the same people were willing to pay $10 000 for a liposuction. So I said, ‘Well, let’s stop healing the sick, I’m gonna become a beautician; a medically-trained beautician.’

And that was what I did – liposuction, breast augmentation, eyelid surgeries, you name it, we do it. It was very good money. My clinic, when we started off, waiting time was 1 week; 1 month; became 2 months; became 3 months. There was so much demand that people were literally queuing up to have aesthetic work done on them. Vain women – easy life!

So the clinic grew. I was so overwhelmed, from 1 doctor, I employed 2, then 3, then 4 doctors, and carried on. Nothing is ever enough. I wanted more and more and more. So much so that we set up shop in Indonesia to lure all the Indonesian tai tai’s. We set up shop, set up a team of people there, to get more Indonesian patients to come in.

So, things were doing well. I’m there, my time has arrived. 

Around some time in February last year, I said, ‘OK, I have so much spare cash, it’s time to get my first Ferrari. So there I was, getting ready for the deposit. ‘OK! There comes my first Ferrari!’ I was looking for land, to share with some of my friends. I have a banker friend who makes $5 million a year. So I thought, ‘Come, let’s come together. Let’s buy some land and build our houses.’

I was at my prime, getting ready to enjoy. At the same time, my friend Danny had a revival. They were going back to church, some of my close friends. They told me, ‘Richard, come, join us, come back to church.’

I have been a Christian for 20 years; I was baptised 20 years ago, but it was because it was fashionable to be a Christian then. All my friends were becoming Christians then. It was fashionable! I wanted to be baptised, so that when I filled in a form, I could put there “Christian” – feels good. In truth, I had never had a bible; I don’t know what the bible is all about.

I went to church for a while, after some time, I got tired. I said it’s time to go to NUS, stop going to church. I had a lot more things to pursue in NUS – girls, studies, sports etc. After all, I had achieved all these things without God today, so who needs God? I myself can achieve anything I want.

In my arrogance, I told them, “You know what? You go tell your pastor to change your sermon to 2pm. I will consider coming to church.” Such arrogance! And I said 1 statement in addition to that – till date, I don’t know I’ve regretted saying that – I told Danny and my friends, “If God really wanted me to come back to church, He will give me a sign.”. Lo and behold, 3 weeks later, I was back at church.

THE DIAGNOSIS


In March 2011, out of the blues – I was still running around, ‘cause I’m a gym freak and I always go to the gym training, running, swimming 6 days a week. I had some backache, and that’s all I had, but it was persistent. And so I went for an MRI to exclude prolapsed disc. And the day before I had my scan, I was still in the gym, lifting heavy weights, doing my squats. And the next day, they found that half my spine had bone marrow replacement. I said, “Woah, sorry, what’s that?” 

We had a PET scan the next day, and they diagnosed that I had terminal lung cancer, stage 4B. It had spread to the brain, half the spine, whole of my lungs were filled with tumour, liver, adrenals…

I said, “Can’t be, I was just at the gym last night, what’s going on?” I’m sure you know how it feels – though I’m not sure if you know how it feels. One moment I was there at the peak, the next day, this news came and I was totally devastated. My whole world just turned upside down. 

I couldn’t accept it. I have a hundred relatives on both sides, my mom and my dad. 100 of them. And not a single one has cancer. To me, in my mind, I have good genes, I’m not supposed to be having this! Some of my relatives are heavy chain smokers. Why am I having lung cancer? I was in denial.

HIS ENCOUNTER WITH GOD

So the next day, I was still in a state of denial, still unable to accept what was going on. There I was lying in an operating theatre in a hospital, for a needle biopsy (for histology). There I was, just completed the biopsy, and lying in the operating theatre. The nurses and doctors had left; told me I had to wait for 15 minutes to do a check X-ray to make sure there’s no pneumothorax (a complication).

And there I was, lying on the operating table, staring blankly at the ceiling in a cold, quiet operating theatre. Suddenly I just heard an inner voice; it was not like coming from outside. It was inside. This small inner voice that I had never felt before. And it said very specifically, it said, “This has to happen to you, at your prime, because it’s the only way you can understand.”

I said, “Woah, why did that come from?” You know, when you speak to yourself, you’d say, “OK, what time should I leave this place? Where shall I have dinner after this?” You’d speak from a first person point of view. You don’t say, “Where should YOU go after this?” Whereas the voice that came spoke as a third party. It said, “This has to happen to YOU, at YOUR prime, because this is the only way YOU can understand.” At that time, my emotions just overflowed and I broke down and cried, alone there. And I knew then, subsequently, what it means to understand that why this is the only way.

Because I had been so proud of myself, my whole life, I needed nobody else. I was gifted with things that I could do, why do I need anybody else? I was just so full of myself that there was no other way I could have turned back to God.

In fact, if I were diagnosed with stage 1 or 2, I would have been looking around busily for the best cardiothoracic surgeon, remove a section of the lobe (do a lobectomy), do preventive chemotherapy…The chances of it being cured is extremely high. Who needs God? But I had stage 4B. No man can help, only God can.

A series of events happened after that. I wasn’t sold after that, because of the inner voice, I became believing, prayers, all that. No I wasn’t. To me, it was just ‘maybe there was a voice; or maybe that was just me talking to myself.’ I didn’t buy the story.

What happened next was that I was being prepared for chemotherapy. I started off with a whole brain radiation therapy first; takes about 2 -3 weeks. In the meantime they prepared me for chemotherapy, supplements etc. One of the things they used for chemo was a thing called Zometa. Zometa - they use it to strengthen the bones; once the bone marrow (replacement) is cured of cancer cells, it becomes hollow, so we need Zometa to strengthen the bone to prevent compression fractures. 

One of the side effects of Zometa is that it can cause osteonecrosis (bone death) of the jaw, and I had to have my wisdom teeth removed. Years ago, I had my upper wisdom teeth removed, cos it was giving me trouble. The lower ones didn’t give me trouble so I said, “Forget it, just leave it.” So of cause, Danny volunteered to remove it for me.

So there I was, lying there in a dental chair, asking myself, suffering all the side effects of radiotherapy, and now I have to go through wisdom tooth surgery. As if I’ve not had enough to suffer! So I asked Danny, “Eh, bro, is there any other way? Can I not go though this?” He said, “Yes, you can pray.” 

I said, “What’s there to lose? Ok lah, pray lah!” And so we prayed. And we did an X-ray after that. Everything was all there, all the appliances and everything. And lo and behold, the Xray showed that there was no wisdom teeth in the lower jaw. I know most people have 4 wisdom teeth, maybe some have none, but to be missing one or 2, as I understand – I’m not too sure, as I understand – is not that common.

Still I was, “Nah, I don’t care about that.” To me, as long as I didn’t have to take out the tooth, I was happy. At that point, I still wasn’t sold on prayers. Maybe it was just a coincidence – for whatever it’s worth.

I continued meeting my oncologist, asking him, “How long do I have?” I asked him. He said, not more than 6 months. I said, “Even with chemotherapy?” About 3 – 4 months, he said. 

I couldn’t grasp that. It was difficult to come to terms. And even as I went through radiotherapy, I was struggling everyday, especially when I wake up, hoping that it’s just a nightmare; when I wake up, it’s all over.

As I was struggling, day after day, I went into depression, which is the typical denial, depression blah blah blah that you go through. But for 1 reason, I don’t know why, there was this specific day that I was supposed to meet my oncologist. At about 2pm, I felt this sudden surge of peace, comfort, and in fact, a little happiness. It was just overflowing. For no rhyme or reason, it just came about 2pm, as I was getting ready, dressing up to meet my oncologist. So much so that I whats-apped all my friends that, “Bros, I just feel so good suddenly! I don’t know why, it just came!”

And it was only days, or was it weeks after, that Danny revealed to me that he had fasted for 2 days for me, and he was bargaining with God, and fasted for 2 dyas, and he ended his fast at that exact same point, about 2pm thereabouts, that this surge of sensation came to me for no rhyme or reason. And I didn’t know that he was fasting for me. And when he ended the fast, I felt that sensation!

Whoa, things were getting a bit too coincidental. I was starting to buy a bit of the story, but still I wasn’t sold. As days passed by, I completed my radiotherapy, about 2 weeks plus. Getting ready for chemo, so they let me rest for a few days.

See, the mortality rate of lung cancer : Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate. If you add up breast, colorectal (colon) cancer, and prostate cancer (the top few cancers in Singapore for men and women), if you add up the mortality rate of these 3, it still doesn’t add up to lung cancer. Simply because, you understand, you can remove the prostate, the colon, the breast, but you cannot remove your lungs.

But there’s about 10% of lung cancer patients who do pretty well for some reasons, because they have this specific mutation; we call it the EGFR mutation. And it happens, only 90% of the time, in Asian ladies who never smoked in their lives. Me, first of all, I’m male. 2ndly, I’m a social smoker. I take one a day after dinner; weekends, when my friends offer me, I take it as well. I’m a light smoker, not a social smoker. But still, my oncologist was still not hopeful for me to have this mutation. 

The chances of it happening for me was maybe 3-4% for me to get it. That’s why I was being primed to go for chemo. But through all the intense prayers, friends like Danny, people that I don’t even know, it turned out that, during my waiting for chemo, the results came back that I was EGFR positive. I was like, “Woah, good news!” Cos now I don’t have to undergo chemo at that time, because there’s this oral tablet that you can use to control this disease.

Just to share with you some idea – this is a CT scan – thorax – of my lungs, before treatment. 

AFTER BEFORE 

Every single dot there is a tumour. You can see all the mets (metastasis) there. This is just one single plane. Literally I had it in both lungs, and I had literally tens of thousands of tumour. That’s why the oncologist told me, even with chemo, at most 3-4 months.

But because of this mutation, they have this oral medication. This is what happened after 2 months of treatment. As you can see over here; this is what God can do. And that’s why I’m still here having this opportunity to share with you. As you can see over here, the difference between before and after treatment.

At that point, I said, “Well, it’s to be expected, isn’t it? The medicine is good.” I’m still not buying the story. Well, the guys prayed for me and the tumour markers started to come down. 90% of the tumours were wiped out, and the tumour markers came down to more than 90% over the next few months.

But still, you know, once you have the clinical knowledge, you know the statistics. One year survival, two year survival; having all this knowledge is not a good thing. Cos you live with the knowledge that even with all this, the cancer cells are so unstable, they keep mutating. They will overcome and become resistant to the drugs, and eventually you’re gonna run out of medication.

So living with this knowledge is a huge mental struggle, a huge mental torture. Cancer is not just about a physical struggle, it’s a huge mental torture. How do you live with no hope? How do you live with not being able to plan for the next few years? The oncologist tells you to bear with it for the next 1 – 2 months. So it’s a lot of struggles as I went through: March, then April. April was my lowest point, in deep depression, struggling even as I was recovering.

HIS ACCEPTANCE & PEACE

And one of those days, I was there in bed, struggling in the afternoon, asking God, “Why? Why do I have to go through this suffering? Why do I have to endure this hardship, this struggle? Why me?” 

As I fell asleep, in my dreamy state, a vision just came, that says Hebrews 12:7-8.

Now mind you, at this time, I had not read the bible. I have no clue what’s Hebrews, I don’t even know how many chapters there are. Totally clueless.

But it says Hebrews 12:7-8, very specifically.

I didn’t think too much of it. I just continued sleeping. Then I woke up, and I said, “What’s there to lose? I’d just check it out lah!” Danny had bought me a bible; it’s still quite new. I said, “It’s ok, just try.” So I flipped to the Old Testament. Hebrews to me sounds like something ancient, so it should be in the Old Testament right? So I flipped through the Old Testament. No Hebrews there. I was so disappointed.

Then I said, “Maybe New Testament, let’s have a look!”. WOW – New Testament, there’s Hebrew’s!! It says Hebrews 12:7-8. It says, “Endure hardship as discipline as God is treating you as His children.”


I said, “WAH!! Where did that come from?” I was getting goose pimples all over my body. I said, “This can’t be, right?” I mean, what’s the chance of somebody, who has never read the bible, to have a vision of a chapter of a specific verse, that answers my question directly?

I think God called to me directly as I was there sleeping, struggling with it, asking God, “Why do I have to suffer? Why do I have to suffer this?” And God says “Endure hardship as discipline as God is treating you as His child.”

At this point, the chance of that happening is even lesser than my EGFR being positive. There’s just no way; there’s so many millions of thousands of verses in the bible, how can I just conjure up something like that?

So at that point, I was sold I said, “YOU WIN! YOU WIN!!”

Ok , I was convinced. And so from that day onwards, I started believing in my God. And the last time I heard that inner voice was the end of April. And that inner voice, same thing, in the afternoon, as I was sleeping (this time I wasn’t struggling, just going to sleep). In a dreamy state I just heard Him say, “Help others in hardship.”

It was more like a command, rather than a statement. And that’s when I embarked on this journey, helping others in hardship. And I realised that hardship is not just about being poor. In fact, I think a lot of poor people are probably happier than a lot of us here. They are so easily contented with whatever they have, they’re probably pretty happy.

Hardship can happen to rich people; it can be physical hardship, mental hardship, social, etc. And also over the last few months, I started to understand what this true joy is about. In the past, I substituted true joy with the pursuing of wealth. I thought true joy is about pursuing wealth. Why? Cos let me put it to you this way, in my death bed, I found no joy whatsoever in whatever objects I had – my Ferrari, thinking of the land I was going to buy to build my bungalow etc, having a successful business.

It brought me ZERO comfort, ZERO joy, nothing at all. Do you think I can hold onto this piece of metal and it’s going to give true joy? Nah, it’s not going to happen. 

True joy comes from interaction with other people. And at a lot of times, it is a short term pride, the past. When you pursue your wealth, Chinese New Year is the best time to do it. Drive my Ferrari, show off to my relatives, show off to my friends, do my rounds, and then you thought that was true joy? You really think that those guys who sold you your Ferrari, they share their joy with you? And your relatives, wow, they share this joy with you? In truth, what you have done is just to illicit envy, jealousy, and even hatred. They are not sharing the joy with you, and what I have is that short-term pride that wow, I have something you don’t have! And I thought that was joy!

So what we have is basically a short-term pride at the expense of somebody else. And that wasn’t true joy. And I found no joy at all on my deathbed, thinking of my Ferrari – to hold on to it, sayang it?!?

True joy I discovered comes from interaction. Over the last few months I was so down. Interaction with my loved ones, my friends, my brothers in Christ, my sisters in Christ, and only then was I able to be motivated, able to be uplifted. To share your sorrow, to share your happiness – that’s true joy.

And you know what makes you smile? True joy comes from helping others in hardship, and because I’ve gone through this, I know what hardship entails. In fact, there’re some cancer patients who tell me a lot of times, people come up to them and tell them, “Stay positive. Stay positive.” Yah, right. You come in my shoes and you try to stay positive! You don’t know what you’re talking about!

But I have the licence. So I’ve been going out to meet other fellow cancer patients, to share with them, encourage them. And I know, because I’ve been through it, and it’s easier for me to talk to them.

And most importantly, I think true joy comes from knowing God. Not knowing about God – I mean, you can read the bible and know about God – but knowing God personally; getting a relationship with God. I think that’s the most important. That’s what I’ve learnt.

So if I were to sum it up, I’d say that the earlier we sort out the priorities in our lives, the better it is. Don’t be like me – I had no other way. I had to learn it through the hard way. I had to come back to God to thank Him for this opportunity because I’ve had 3 major accidents in my past – car accidents. You know, these sports car accidents – I was always speeding , but somehow I always came out alive, even with the car almost being overturned. And I wouldn’t have had a chance. Who knows, I don’t know where else I’d be going to! Even though I was baptised it was just a show, but the fact that this has happened, it gave me a chance to come back to God.

Few things I’d learnt though:
1. Trust in the Lord your God with all your heart – this is so important.
2. Is to love and serve others, not just ourselves.

There is nothing wrong with being rich or wealthy. I think it’s absolutely alright, cos God has blessed. So many people are blessed with good wealth, but the trouble is I think a lot of us can’t handle it. The more we have, the more we want. I’ve gone through it, the deeper the hole we dig, the more we get sucked into it, so much so that we worship wealth and lose focus. Instead of worshipping God, we worship wealth. It’s just a human instinct. It’s just so difficult to get out of it.

We are all professionals, and when we go into private practise, we start to build up our wealth – inevitably. So my thought are, when you start to build up wealth and when the opportunity comes, do remember that all these things don’t belong to us. We don’t really own it nor have rights to this wealth. It’s actually God’s gift to us. Remember that it’s more important to further His Kingdom rather than to further ourselves.

Anyway I think that I’ve gone through it, and I know that wealth without God is empty. It is more important that you fill up the wealth, as you build it up subsequently, as professionals and all, you need to fill it up with the wealth of God.

I think that’s about it. It’s good to share. Thanks.

Only in Malaysia, at least in KL - Public Toilets

How is it that it is ok to have a female cleaner in men's public toilets while men, doing their 'business' and the lady cleaner mops the floor in and around the urinary chambers and toilets, in KL/M'sia? We have in certain states in Malaysia where religious laws are implemented in supermarket checkouts, men's only and ladies' only checkout counters and the checkout chicks are gloved. Even on train coaches are designated "Women's only' coach, men not allowed. Double standards?

Friday, October 26, 2012

Patrick Teoh's Niamah

If you want an honest opinion about anything, Patrick Teoh is the man who can give it to you. Many have called him candidly callous. Others say he is frightfully frank. And the rest think he is brazenly bold. Tell Patrick this and, in his distinctive voice, he will give you this reply: "No lah, where got one?"

What most people don't see is that he is unusually uncomplicated for all that he writes on his blog, Niamah!!!, which loosely translates to "Your Mother". Enough said.
Patrick's blog is about his thoughts on hot issues in Malaysia in relation to politics and education, among other things. It comes with a warning: "This Blog Contains Strong Language. Reader Discretion Is Advised."

"When I started the blog eight years ago, I never worried about it being censored or that I would receive surprise visits in the middle of the night," he says. "I just looked at it as an avenue to express what almost every other Malaysian was thinking. This is my country, I was born here, and I have roots here. Why can't I have an opinion about it? Whatever I write about is already in the public domain and I'm only commenting on what I see."

To those who say he is fearless in expressing the things he sees, Patrick shakes his head in vehement disagreement and says he doesn't deserve the accolade, adding that people shouldn't be afraid to speak their minds.

"But people aren't doing it because, for the past 50 years, we have been told not to do it. Speak your mind, yes. But never insult someone else's culture and don't shove yours down their throats."

Say what you mean

Speaking his mind is something Patrick is very comfortable with. And he is all for others doing the same. Some of you might remember an incident in 1996 that occurred while he was with Radio 4 RTM.

A listener related his experience with a member of the police force. At a roadblock, a policeman stopped him for allegedly drinking and driving and asked for a bribe. When he said that he did not have money with him, the policeman allegedly told him that he could call someone to bring him the money. When he said that he did not have a phone, the policeman allegedly offered him the use of his mobile phone.

After the show, SAC Supian Amat lodged a police report against Patrick under the instruction of the then Inspector-General of Police, Rahim Noor, resulting in Patrick being called to the police station for various interviews.

Lat drew a cartoon about this incident, as did Reggie Lee. Controversial or not, any Malaysian will tell you that you've made it when Lat draws a caricature of you. Speaking of humour, there was also the April Fools' Day duck hoax that occurred 15 years to the day of this interview.

During his radio show, Patrick took a call from an advertising agency chap (who was in fact his friend) looking for ducks to be featured in a commercial for a new snack. The concept of the commercial was to place ducks on hot plates so they would jump about. Other listeners called in the radio show to blast the ad agency, and the SPCA lodged a police report.

When it was discovered that "dancing ducks" was a hoax, the press accused Patrick of being irresponsible, and some even called for his resignation. Patrick's response to the issue was, "Can't you take a joke? Lighten up a little bit, you know."

To the question of whether Malaysians have lightened up 15 years later, Patrick bluntly says, "Quite on the contrary, actually. And I deduce this from reading the news and other online portals. In fact, Malaysians are more serious than ever.

"Years ago, I could joke with my friends and call each other derogatory names relating to our respective races. Can we do that now? How are we celebrating our diversity? As a 64-year-old Malaysian who has seen enough about what goes on in this country, I guess I just don't want to tolerate it anymore."

What does he think has gone wrong with Malaysia? He blames people who have power but have lost sight of the objective of power and got greedy.
This of course steers the conversation towards the coming general election, which Patrick says is a 50-50 thing.

"To be honest, I am disappointed in us as a nation," he says. "With Malaysians, there is a lot of apathy which has happened over the past 50 years.
"There are many who think, 'It's not so bad. We are safe from typhoons and I still get to eat nasi lemak at three o'clock in the morning. '

"Is this what we base selecting our government on? I get very angry when I hear people say this. If you know what's going on, don't seclude and delude yourself. Things will never change that way."

The ideal Malaysia

What is Patrick's idea of an ideal Malaysia? He says it would be a nation that realised everyone could share in its rich resources.

He offers the imagery of a cake, saying, "Instead of cutting thinner slices, why not bake a bigger cake? And we know we can do it. It will take a lot, but it can happen.
"We need new leadership, the kind that knows if we could get rid of the old one, they had better do a damn good job or they will find themselves on their butts."
Just as he finishes this statement, some magazines arrive and one of them has Dr Mahathir Mohamad on the cover. Patrick is on the phone. With a grin, he cheekily points to the cover.

Visitors of Niamah!!! know how Patrick feels about the ex-prime minister and will be tickled to find out that Patrick has bumped into him before.
"I was at a supermarket at the old Yow Chuan Plaza in KL when I saw a bunch of thuggish-looking men with handle-bar moustaches. As I pushed my cart, I thought to myself that there must be some VIP in the premises. As I turned the corner into the next aisle, who do I bump into but the man himself! I of course apologised, and he said, 'Yes, hello Patrick. How are you? Still reading the news?' I replied I wasn't and went on my way.

"I met him again when Marina his daughter invited me to a Hari Raya do at their house which was at Seri Perdana at the time. I was sitting at my table, when I spied Mahathir walking to the entrance of the house. And there he stood alone. I decided to go up to him and wish him. Once again, he said, 'Well hello, Patrick. How are you? Still reading the news?'"

Patrick didn't quite get to have conversation with Mahathir because when the rest of the guests spotted the good doctor, they ran up to him and shoved Patrick out of the way, resulting in him being pushed down the stairs.

To go back to the question of Patrick still reading the news, it happened also with Sultan Azlan Shah when he was the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

"I attended a function where he was the guest of honour. When it was time for him to leave, we all had to line up outside and see him off. When he saw me, he said, 'Hello Patrick. Still reading the news? With RTM right?' I replied no I wasn't but I was once with TV3. The King then said, 'RTM or TV3, they are all the same.'"

Patrick has just released a book entitled Teoh-logy.

He says he might already have the title of his next book – "Eh Patrick, You Still Reading The News?"

Earlier in the conversation, Patrick was asked what he thought about being considered a Malaysian icon by some people. He said he would react very badly to it, the same way he would if he were offered a datukship.
"I do not think I have done anything worthy of a title award."

But with the recognition he gets from Mahathir and the former king, plus the cartoons by Lat and Reggie Lee, some might beg to differ, and say "No lah, Patrick. Sure got one."

Thai hotel brews up coffee from elephant dung

http://m.yahoo.com/w/legobpengine/news/thai-hotel-brews-coffee-elephant-dung-092945800.html?orig_host_hdr=sg.news.yahoo.com&.intl=SG&.lang=en-SG

This is what my friend, TC had to say:
Civet cat coffee...... Now - ELEPHANT DUNG COFFEE!!

The idiotic @*%!? rich got nothing better to drink, can now drink SHITTY COFFEE for the elephant, no less!

WHAT THE F*#%@ ARE THESE PEOPLE THINKING WITH?

Massive poverty in many countries and people can think of effing stupid stuff like this - $1000/kilo???

http://sg.news.yahoo.com/thai-hotel-brews-coffee-elephant-dung-092945800.html

Should stick their heads in the elephant's arse if the want better aroma!

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

Chinese New Year dates up to 2019


Year
Chinese New Year Begins
Animal Sign
2008
February 7
Rat
2009
January 26
Ox
2010
February 14
Tiger
2011
February 3
Rabbit
2012
January 23
Dragon
2013
February 10
Snake
2014
January 31
Horse
2015
February 19
Sheep
2016
February 8
Monkey
2017
January 28
Rooster
2018
February 16
Dog
2019
February 5
Pig


Monday, October 22, 2012

Vincent’s world under the sea

Saturday September 29, 2012

Vincent's world under the sea

MY OTHER BUSINESS
By CHERYL POO
starbiz@thestar.com.my


Beyond the bottom line, Vincent Tan shares about his love for the marine world below.
In the 1970s, an insurance agent visited Pulau Tioman during a company trip. He was fascinated by the golden shores and rich marine life and vowed to stake his presence there one day.
 
"IN Redang, some years back, my dive master spotted a puffer fish – a beautiful, shy species that swells up into an inedible ball when threatened – and signaled me over. I wrapped my hands around it and discovered that what I thought were sharp, poisonous thorns around its body were actually soft and harmless. That was priceless." - Tan Sri Vincent Tan

He had a dream to enter into the hospitality industry that would thrive in the pristine environment of the country's many nature spots.
That man, now one of the country's prominent tycoons Tan Sri Vincent Tan, not only achieved his dream the following decade, but discovered a newfound interest for exploring the world under the sea.
"My acquisition of the resort at Tioman motivated me. I figured that since Tioman drew so many snorklers and divers, I'd better get a taste of the sport too," says Tan.
The marine world is far away from the clubhouse in Kuala Lumpur where this interview was conducted but the passion clearly sparkled in his eyes.
Tan, the founder of Berjaya Corp Bhd, appears well-rested and relaxed in black slacks and a white shirt.
The conversation, for the purpose of this column, revolved around his other interests and business matters were not raised.
We glanced over the previous night's football matches, another of his favourite subjects since his acquisition of Cardiff City Football Club, but we talked mostly about diving.
Tan's enthusiasm was obvious as he recollected his many oceanic adventures.
Tan Sri Vincent Tan pointing at a line of reef sharks swimming past him during a dive in Sipadan Island in Sabah this year. Tan Sri Vincent Tan pointing at a line of reef sharks swimming past him during a dive in Sipadan Island in Sabah this year.
"In Redang, some years back, my dive master spotted a puffer fish a beautiful, shy species that swells up into an inedible ball when threatened and signaled me over. I wrapped my hands around it and discovered that what I thought were sharp, poisonous thorns around its body were actually soft and harmless. That was priceless," recalls Tan, who turned 60 this year.
He has dived in the Maldives and Hanuma Bay, on the eastern island of Oahu in Hawaii, but finds that the marine life in those oceans is not nearly as rich as our very own Sipadan Island, a world-renowned diving spot off the east coast of Sabah.
Tan reckons that with more development, there will be more tourists, and the coral life will be compromised.
"I suppose it's nature's law of compensation," he notes.
Over the decades, water pollution and irresponsible methods of fishing by trawlers have also impacted the bountiful marine life, but fortunately many islands on the east coast of the peninsular and those off Sabah and Sarawak have retained the beauty that lay beneath and beyond it.
"We organise clean-ups and educate hotel guests not to litter. As divers, we make it a point to remove the crown-of-thorns starfish from the seabed," he says.
The crown-of-thorns starfish preys on corals, which affects the ecosystem of the ocean.
Tan scrolls through his smartphone for photos and video footages taken on recent diving trips there.
"See how we're surrounded by thousands of jack fish. You can only find them in Sipadan. We swam into them and they circled around us," he recalls, gesturing to the screen.
"And that's (Datuk) Robin in his shorts, for ease of identification when we're underwater," he chuckles. "We don't normally dive together, but he and my other son U-Ming were able to accompany me on that trip."
Tan plays another clip of them swimming over the renowned Sipadan drop-off, where the underwater rock formation suddenly disappears over a forbidding chasm and the sombre ocean beyond.
"Look at that! The water was so clear and surroundings so enchanting that we didn't realise that we had gone 180 ft deep. We went up after that."
Interestingly, Tan prefers to freedive, that's diving without a mask and tank an uncommon activity for someone his age.
With a daily routine of running on the threadmill and swimming laps in his pool, Tan is health-conscious and intends on keeping it that way.
"I like food, especially curry, so it's important for me to exercise every day," he says.
"To keep this down," he jokes, patting on his stomach. "I don't want a pouch."
Tan frequents his resorts in Redang and Tioman several times a year and doesn't tire of exploring the dive sites there.
He remembers an underwater cave near Pulau Tulai, some 20km to 30km off Pulau Tioman, where divers can swim through the opening of the rock formation and emerge at the other end.
Tan was initially apprehensive about trying it out, but he now recommends the dive spot as one of the island's must dos.
He talks about the importance of knowing how to swim and the need to incorporate it into the education curiculum, as is done in the United States.
(In Malaysia, swimming is currently a co-curiculum activity that is optional for school children.)
"In my time, and perhaps it wasn't the best method, we simply jumped into the river and swam," he remembers of his modest upbringing in a village in Batu Pahat, Johor.
"I've always felt attuned to the ocean. Even when Tioman's development was in its infancy, before we built an airport there, the long boat rides wouldn't faze me. I consider it a gift."
"Diving is, in many ways, similar to running a business. To me, these are calculated risks and you will be safe as long as you follow the safety precautions. But one man's meat is another man's poison. What I think is a calculated risk may not seem so to another. You've just gotta have faith in the Creator."

Sunday, October 21, 2012

MonoKrony aka MonoCrony

Click on image and zoom in

RIP, my dearly departed friend and colleague, Eric KHOO Teng Hai

It was with great sadness (and shock) when I was informed of Eric's passing. I was in my office working through lunch and decided to grab a quick bite around 3pm Friday Oct19, 2012. I came out of my office and along the corridor near the coffee vending machine were the 'office boys' chatting amongst themselves, we exchanged greeting pleasantries. One of them then asked me if I heard the 'news'. I answered, "no, what news?". They broke the 'shocking' news to me. For his age, he was a youthful 60yr old (more like 50), to me. He was a humble, nice and wonderful pleasant man. I shall cherish the memories I have of Eric.
On behalf of Eric's loved ones, family, friends and colleagues, I dedicate this poem to Eric.

RIP, Eric bro! See you soon, buddy.

Click on the images to view and zoom in.

Ps...it was only a week or so ago, I lost an ex-classmate, he had personal problems we didn't know and in hindsight we wished we knew so as to provide emotional support but alas...too late, he ended his life. :(

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

LSPJ Annual Dinner has been planned to be held on Saturday 8th December 2012 at the President's Room , Kelab Golf Negara Subang

Dear  Eugene
I would like to personally invite you to our Annual Dinner . The details are appended belwo.
Our Annual Dinner has been planned to be held on Saturday 8th December 2012  at the President's Room , Kelab Golf Negara Subang 7.00pm.
Philip Phang and the Class of 1982 will use the occasion to celebrate their 30th Class Anniversary. We ask other Class years celebrating significant anniversaries to also join in and use this ready made event to have mini reunions. The OLA would like to cordially invite you to join us at this edition of our OLA Annual Dinner.
The cost per head is RM80.00 which includes a Chinese Sit Down Dinner and entertainment to be announced. All alcoholic drinks will be at your own cost. Tickets will be sold on an individual basis in which case seating is not reserved.
Should you purchase a block of 10 tickets you will be given a Reserved Table. Call up your mates of yester year and make this one off many more reunions.

Method of Payment
Prior payment by cheque or cash required
Bank Particulars:: PUBLIC BANK BERHAD 
Account name :: OLD LASALLIAN ASSOCIATION-PETALING JAYA 
Account number:: 3103959415
Booking without payment does not assure you anything. You only get onto a list of persons with intentions.
After making payment please send copy of payment slip by email after scanning or photographing it. Please quote Transaction Number , Branch Number and Time of making the payment.

Thank you

Patrick C Augustin

OLD LA SALLIANS ASSOCIATION PETALING JAYA
www.olalspj.com

Friday, October 5, 2012

Automatic Enforcement System (AES)

Job vacancies @ WORLDTECH SOLUTIONS SDN BHD


Our company emphasizes on 4 principles:
1. Strictly no office politics
2. Equal opportunity and performance driven
3. Strong Team Work
4. Growing with company

Our customers are from various sectors like MNC, Bank, Insurance, Group of Companies, GLC, Education, Manufacturing and Government sector.
In line with our rapid business expansion, we would like to invite experience and qualified candidates to join in our organization. (www.wtech.com.my)

(1)

Responsibilities:
  • To participate in the requirement analysis and design of applications
  • To research, design and development products
  • Responsible for system development according to requirement within given timeline
  • Document product release under Subversion platform to ensure it is running in a stable and optimum mode
  • To perform 3rd Level Support and provide software modification/bug fixing
  • To evaluate hot fixes, patches and product releases
  • To maintain product documentation and change releases
Requirements:
  • Diploma/Degree/Professional qualification in Computer Science/ Computer Engineering/Information Technology or equivalent
  • At least 2 years of working experience in the related field is required for this position. Those with more than 5 years working experience can be consider as senior position.
  • Enjoy solving logical problems and "love" programming
  • Must have strong programming skill using HTML,C++, CSS, Java, JSP & JavaScript
  • Candidate must have working experience using Eclipse or Visual Studio and using Object Oriented Programming (OOP) methodology.
  • Required hands-on knowledge in SQL (MySQL & MSSQL), LINUX and Windows server
  • Analytical minded and effective decision making
  • Strong interpersonal skills and effective communication in English and BM
  • Strong team spirit and able to work with all levels of people
  • Able to work well under pressure
  • On job training provided
  • Applicants should be Malaysian citizens
  • Required language(s): Bahasa Malaysia, English
  • Applicants must be willing to work in Kota Damansara.
(2)

Responsibilities:
  • To develop overall layout, visual appearance or graphic user interface for company products.
  • To improvements in the usability and design standards of existing system.
  • Design user interfaces & user workflow experiences for various digital platforms - websites and mobile OS
  • To maintain and enhance company websites
  • To design creation for email (newsletter), blogs and others web contents.
  • To design marketing material such as brochures, banners, flyers and others
Requirements:
  • Candidate must possess at least Advanced/Higher Diploma, Bachelor's Degree, Post Graduate Diploma in Creative Multimedia, Computer Science/Information Technology or equivalent.
  • Required skill(s): HTML, XHTML, Ajax, CSS, JavaScript, Macromedia Flash, Photoshop, Illustrator and JSP /PHP.
  • At least 1 years of working experience in the related field is required for this position.
  • Enjoy and like to explore new designing elements and technique.
  • Candidate must have working experience using Photoshop, Illustrator, Macromedia Dreamweaver, Eclipse or Visual Studio.
  • Strong interpersonal skills and effective communication in English and BM
  • Strong team spirit and able to work with all levels of people
  • Able to work well under pressure
  • Applicants should be Malaysian citizens
  • Required language(s): Bahasa Malaysia, English
  • Applicants must be willing to work in Kota Damansara.
(3)

Responsibilities:
  • To plan and implement sales activities to meet assigned sales target
  • To increase customer base by prospecting and creating new business opportunities
  • Ability to win business from both new and existing customers and relationship building with key decision makers
  • To support pre-sales and post-sales activities, to propose new creative solutions to ensure customer satisfaction
  • To engage in assigned accounts by giving real time supports, regular customers visits to meet customers business needs
Requirements:
  • At least 2 years of sales and marketing working experience. Candidates preferably to have a proven good track sales record in manufacturing or corporate or Education or GLC or government sector
  • Must have strong IT solution selling skill
  • For those more than 8 years sales experience with minimum 2 years in managerial position can apply for Branch Manager (Penang and Johor) and team leader position (Kota Damansara).
  • Excellent PR, communication, presentation & proposal writing skills
  • Good leadership, interpersonal skill and effective communication in English or Bahasa Malaysia
  • Self-driven, motivated, passion for excellence, determined and persistent
  • Able to work well under pressure
  • Possess own transport
  • On job training provided
  • Applicants must be willing to work in Kota Damansara or Penang Bayan Baru.
  • Applicants should be Malaysian citizens or hold relevant residence status.
  • Preferably Managers specializing in Marketing/Business Development or equivalent
  • Required language(s): Bahasa Malaysia, English

An attractive remuneration package which will commensurate with experience and qualification will be offered to the successful candidate

Interested and QUALIFIED candidates are invited apply online, fax or e-mail with a comprehensive resume (maximum 2 pages) giving details of qualifications, experiences, current and expected salary, contact number and a recent passport-sized photograph (n.r.) not later than 31st Oct 2012

E-mail: hr@wtech.com.my
Fax: 03-61423698
www.wtech.com.my

Thursday, October 4, 2012

FREE Educational Video on Doing Business In China


FREE Video Education on Busines Structures that is suitable for Tax & Wealth Planning in China
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View it in your browser.

Hi Eugene CHUNG,

I'm happy to share with you
a FREE 60-mins Educational Video on the topic of
Doing Business in China: Structures that is suitable for Tax & Wealth Planning

Click Here for the Free Educational Video at this link
http://kclau.com/webinar/china-wofe/

 


Thank You, 

Evanna Phoon, 
www.malaysiawills.com



PS: Like FREE Educational Video on Doing Business In China on Facebook Click Like if you like this email
 


 
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Wednesday, October 3, 2012

Hakka History

Hakka History

Hakka - Origin

There has been some debate about the origin of Hakka as a Han derivative. Here is some more evidence that Hakka is the true Han ethnic group.
  1. The Great Wall built by Qin Shihuangdi extended to Lin Tiao in Gansu, which is about 100 km west of Long3 Xi1 (the original town for Hakka Lees) By definition, Qin people were true "Chinese" (Chine = Qin).
  2. The Great Wall was further extended by Han Wudi to Yu4 Men2 Guan (Jade Gate) and Yang Guan (Sun Gate) which were at the northwestern tip of Gansu Province. This is called the He2 Xi1 Zou3 Lang2 (the corridor west of the River). In 1980s, a Japanese/Chinese expedition went there and made a TV series, shown in both US and Hong Kong.(It is called "Silk Road" for the English edition and "Ba1 Qian1 Li3 Lu4 Yun2 He2 Yue4" (Eight Thousand Miles of Cloud and Moonlight) for the Chinese title).
  3. In Tang dynasty, Wang Wei's very famous poem "Yang2 Guan1 San1 Die2" (The three Stanza/Movements of Yang Guan) clearly indicates "There won't be old friends west of Yang Guan". So, east of Yang Guan was under the sovereignty of China during Han and Tang.
  4. The Atlas of the People's Republic of China (by CIA. 1971) presents a map of the ethnolinguistic groups in China, dividing them into the following major groups:
    A. Sino-Tibetan - includes Han, Hui, Tibeto-Burman, Tai, Miao-Yao. Hakka, Kan(Gan), Xiang, Wu, Min, Mandarin, Cantonese are classified under Han language system.
    B. Altaic - Turkic, Mongolian, Korean, Tungusic
    C. Indo-European - Tadzhik
    D. Austroasiatic - Mon-Khmer
    E. Uighur
    The Altaic languages are multisyllable languages, clearly distinguished from Hakka, Mandarin and all the Han dialects. Spoken Japanese should be closer to Altaic language in certain ways although kanji was adopted.

History of Migrations

[Revised Feb 10, 1997]
There have been some debate about the origin of Hakka people whether they belong to "Han" people or a minority from "Xiongnu". From most of the evidence gathered, it can be concluded that Hakkas are likely Han people rather than a derivative from the Xiongnu.
Hakka people originated in central China and gradually migrated south to flee from war and famine. There were five major migrations according to the Hakka historian Lo Xiang Lin:
  1. East Jin2 (317 -420 A.D.), Sui dynasty (581-618 A.D.) - Due to "Wu Hu Luan Hwa"(5 barbarian intruding Zhong Hua), Hakkas originated from Shanxi moved to Henan, and then towards the Yangtze river, settling in Hubei, south Henan, Anhui, and Jiangxi.
  2. Tang dynasty (618-907 A.D.) to North Song/Liao2 (960-1127 A.D.) - Particularly due to Huang Chao rebellion (880 A.D.), Hakkas migrated further south from Henan toward south Anhui, southeast Jiangxi, southwest Fujian and north of Guangdong.
  3. South Song and Jin1 (1127-1279 A.D.), Yuan dyanasty (1271-1368 A.D.) to Ming dynasty (1368-1644 A.D.) - Due to Jin1 invasion, Hakka migrated to north and east of Guangdong, establishing a strong influence. Before the Song dynasty, the "Hak" was used in broad definition, for those migrated South. As the migrated groups assimilated with the Xiang group (Hunan, Hubei), Gan group (Jiangxi), Min-Yue group ( most of Fujian), the "Hak" during Song dynasty then was used in narrow definition referring to those migrated South and maintained their independent identity or the Hakkas as we know today.
  4. Early Qing dynasty (1644-1866 A.D.) - Manchurians force Hakka to migrate to central Guangdong, the coastline of Guangdong, Sichuan, Guangxi, Hunan, and Taiwan.
  5. Late Qing dynasty (after 1867 A.D.) - Resulted from the defeat of Taiping Tian Guo, many Hakkas fled to Hainan Island, Guangxi, Taiwan and overseas. An important event for overseas Hakka was the establishment of a Hakka state, Lan Fang Guo by Lo Fangbo.
Another theory (proposed by Professor Fan Qi of National Central University) traced the earliest Hakka to late Qin dynasty. According to professor Fan, the three periods of migration and the settlements are :
  1. Qin - north Pearl River
  2. Jin, Wu-Hu-Luan-Hua - Fujian
  3. South Song - Nanjing to Hanzhou, Wanzhou, East Pearl River
When Qin ShiHuangDi sent Zhao4 Tuo2 to administer Guangdong. After Qin ShiHuangDi died, Zhao declared himself king of NanYue kingdom, independent from Qin, and set up the capital near Guangzhou. The kingdom included Fujian, Guangdong to Guangxi. Zhou Tuo and about 200,000 of his people (mostly soldiers) were originally from different parts of central China. This sizable population was the earliest settlement of Central Plain Hans in Guangdong. Even now, Guangdong remains as a province with the highest diversity of dialects. The Hakka dialect in the northern part of Guangdong is called "North River Hakka" which is slightly different from the "East River Hakka" from subsequent migrations via Fujian and Jiangxi.
Due to the general belief by Hakka that they are "Han" people, the Hakka people are extremely diligent in keeping clan/family genealogy records in hope that they would go back to their hometown in North China. No other Chinese groups keep an in-depth clan/family genealogy as complete as the Hakkas.
For a sample of representative genealogy of the major Hakka families, please see our Genealogy Page. This will be continuously updated by members who have the records, many of which have been kept for hundreds of years.

Hakka and Xiongnu

There has been some discussion on the origin of Hakka and its relationship with Han and Xiongnu. The following is a collection of information intended to further explore this concept.
The definition of Han should be traced to Han dynasty as a conglomeration of the various tribes Hua µØ , Xia®L , ManÆZ , Yi¦i , Rong¦¥ , Di¨f during the Chunqiu-Zhanguo ¬K ¬î ¾Ô °ê era. Although the unification was actually done in Qin¯³ dynasty, historically Qin has been labeled a negative period in Chinese history. So, even the word "Chinese" was derived from "Chin" (Qin) as it was known to the west at that time, Chinese people rather identify with Han than Qin. To that effect, Han people is in fact an inclusive term of many tribes.
North of Han are a number of nomadic tribes which are more distinct in their language, custom, and physical features: Xiongnu
¦I ¥£ , XianbeiÂA ¨õ , Wuyuan¯Q «® , FuYu¤Ò ¾l ,Wusun¯Q ®] , Dingling¤B ¹s , Jiankun°í ©ø . In the south there were southwest Yi¦è «n¦i , southern Man«n ÆZ , and the Hundred Yues ¦Ê ¶V .
At the end of Han dynasty, there was a major integration of the northern tribes with the Han people. From the 4th century, Xiongnu, xianbei, Jie, Di, Jiang from the north established their kingdoms and moved to central China.
The composition of Xiongnu is no less complicated than Han. During Han dynasty, Xiongnu became a major tribe in the north, covering Xinjiang to northeast China, driving Wuyuan and Xianbei to Liaodong¿ñ ªF , Liaoxi¿ñ ¦è . Wuyuan and Xianbei both helped Han to fight Xiongnu, and some of them adopted Han culture. In the middle of this, there were a lot of mixing between Xiongu, Xianbei and Wuyuan.
Due to an internal dispute of inheritance, Xiongnu split into south Xiongnu and north Xiongnu. 52 BC, South Xiongnu led by HuHanYe©I Áú ¨¸ surrendered his 5000 people and settled in Shanxi¤s ¦è . They guard the border for Han and fought against the north Xiongu. During Han HeDiº~ ©M «Ò period, there were 230,000 south Xiongnu under the sovereignty of Han. They started to intermarry Han.
North Xiongnu finally got defeated by a combined force of Xianbei, Dingling(from Siberia), south Xiongnu and Han. Around 90 AD, 400,000 north Xiongnu surrendered to Han. Han sent back the south Xiongnu to take over the territory of north Xiongnu. Part of north Xiongnu's territory was also occupied by Xinabei. Some of the south and north Xiongnu people did settle down in Han territories. The rest of the defeated north Xiongnu moved westward to Siberia and perhaps Europe. They were probably referred to as the Huns by the Europeans.
There were 19 tribes of Xiongnu settling in Han territories. During WeiÃQ dynasty, the decendents of HuHanYe changed the name to Liu ¼B (that is how it got confused. Liu Bang ¼B ¨¹ of Han dynasty was about 400 years earlier). The total number of Xiongnu was about several hundred thousand.
During Jin®Ê dynasty, the population of all Chinese was 2.45 million while around 280 AD, about 260,000 Xiongnu were allowed to settled in Shanxi region. However, they did not receive equality treatment with Han, and were never recognized as part of the Han group. Liu Yuan ¼B ²W was a Xiongnu who totally adopted the Han culture and used Han language. He later established Han kingdom º~ °ê (304-318 AD, which is NOT to be confused with the Han dyansty). They finally took Henan ªe «n and Shanxi¤s ¦è , and destroyed West Jin ¦è ®Ê . Liu Yuan claimed to be a nephew of the Liu family of Han dynasty and adopted Han emperors as his ancestors. He even held ceremonies twice a year to commemorate the Han emperors. EVEN SO, the Xiongnu Liu did not gain the confidence of the Han people. The Xiongnu noblemen were only treated as peasants and servants by the Han group. Finally the Xiongnu decendent Liu Yao ¼B Â` changed the name of the kingdom to Zhao »¯ («e »¯ ¡^ , and abandoned the Liu Bang "Han" ancestry. The Xiongnu "Han" kingdom was later conquered by Hou Zhao «á »¯ led by Shi Le ¥Û °Ç of a Jie½~ tribe. Hou Zhao divided the Chinese territory with East Jin at Huai River²a ¤ô .
The wars between the xiongnu "Han" kingdom and Jie, and the downfall of West Jin caused the southward migration of the Han tribe. And this was thought to be the first major maigration of Hakka (Lo Hsiang Lin). Jie ½~ tribe have high nose bridge and deep eye sockets, easily recognized. When Shi Le's nephew became the emperor, a Han general Ran Min ¥T ¶{ overthrew Hou Zhao and slaughtered all people with high nose bridge. This indicates an extreme ethnic conflict existed between the Han and non-Han at that time, close to the ethnic cleansing we see today in Bosnia.
It is likely that to avoid genocide, some Xiongnu disguised as Han and move to the south with the Han. Many Han aristocrats also had hundreds to thousands of Xiongnu servants and soldiers. However, Jin dynasty is a period with highly distinct class difference. It is difficult for someone with a clearly distinct physical feature to infiltrate Han even as a civilian unless there was some inter-ethnic marriage or affiliation with the Han aristocrats. It was almost impossible for a xiongnu to become a nobility among Han. The number of Xiongnu who could mingle with Han and fled to the south could not be in great number. Culturally speaking, although Liu Yuan was totally Sinicized (Hanized), most of the Xiongnu inhabitants in central China could not have received the kind of education. It would be quite amazing if the Xiongnu decendents could upbring so many famous names like Han YuÁú ·U , Wang YangMing ¤ý ¶§ ©ú , Zhu Xi¦¶ ¿Q ....
If the Hakka language was really a Xiongnu tongue they maintained, they would not have survived at all in East Jin territory. They would have been all massacred. So Hakka language must be at least the language spoken by Han people during Jin dynasty if not earlier. As indicated by the architecture of Hakka 5-Phoenix Building¤­ »ñ ¼Ó , the residents cannot be just ordinary civilians, as the structure is like a miniaturized Imperial palace. They have to be related to the emperor or key court officials. It is difficult to imagine that under such extreme ethnic hostility and class distinction at that time, that Hakka could be derived from Xiongnu and enjoyed such treatment in Han occupied territories. (How many Bosnians can disguise as Moslims, or Serfs, or vice versa?)
Even if some Hakkas were Xiongnu, their language, behavior must be totally integrated with Han to survive this era. Culturally speaking, if certain Hakka were Xiongnu decendents, they should be totally indistinguishable from the Hans. It is not impossible, but unlikely that 400 years can upgrade the identity and class of Xiongnu to equal the Hans. Even nowadays with all the communication tools and education, African Americans took more than 200 years to gain their current social status.
In conclusion, the theory that Hakkas were derived from Xiongnu needs a lot more substantial support. However, it cannot be excluded that some Hakkas do have blood relationship with Xiongnu. Whatever the situation, Hakka culture should be mainly Han culture and not Xiongnu culture.
Notes:
Clyde Kiang proposes that all Hakkas were "sinicized" Xiongnu(Huns) assimilated with Han. Based on that, he claims Hakkas are not even indigenous Chinese. That is a crucial point of the debate. Unfortunately, there are some very fundamental errors in his book that even a layman would not make in defining Hanº~ . Here are some interesting quotations:
{Kiang : The Hakka Odyssey - p.77
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word han in English is an ancient form of Khan which is the turkish word meaning lord, or prince, but originated in Tartars......Clearly the Chinese character Han derives from the sound of what the rulers called themselves Han (Khan) in their mother tongue. This pictophonetic character is a phonogram for water, representing the Mongolian sound of han. Therefore, the original Han people signifies the people of sinicized Huns or barbarisan Mongols dominant cultural group in China....}
The Mongolian "Khan" (or "Han") is only a sound that happen to be same as the Han people. Khan as in Gingis Khan is written in word as "sweat"¦½ which is only a phonetic translation. It surely means prince or lord, but it is totally way off from what the Chinese "Han" º~ was from. (Liu Bang ¼B¨¹ would be rolling over in his grave if he heard this.) Han people as a Chinese ethnic group is from the identification with Han dynasty created by Liu Bang, who was King of Han º~¤ý , ruling the territory of Sichuan ¥|¤t , southern Shanxi¤s ¦è and Hubei ´ò¥_ .
{Kiang: The Hakka Odessey. p. 79 : ...if he(Liu Bang) came from the Chinese Liu clan, why didn't he use the family name Liu to proclaim the Liu dynasty?}
Here is a list of the dynasties and family names associated:
Dynasty Surname
Qin ¯³ Ying ¾Æ
Han º~ Liu ¼B
Jin ®Ê Sima ¥q °¨
Sui ¶¦ Yang ·¨
Tang ­ð Li §õ
Song §º Zhao »¯
Ming ©ú Zhu ¦¶
Qing ²M Aixinjuelo ·R ·s ı ù
In none of the dynasties was the family name used as the dynasty name. Why should Liu Bang be different? There were kingdoms in the Chunqiu/Zhanguo period that when a king was "knighted" (Feng) and given a state, the people also adopt the name of the state as the clan's name, but never for a dynasty!
These statements cast a heavy shadow on the credibility of the book.
S. L. Lee
September 14, 1996
 

About Hakka, Huns and Xiongnu (Hsiongnu)

The Huns were traced to a nomadic tribe in Central Europe (the Steppes near the Black Sea). It is still uncertain whether the Huns in Europe were the same as Xiongnu (which sometimes are also called Huns) [see Encyc. Britannica].
Huns in Europe appeared around 370 AD, while the presence of Xiongnu was felt in China during Qin dynasty (221 BC). The result of conflict between Han dyasty and Xiongnu was a division of Xiongnu. Part of the Xiongnu tribe was "sinicized" (Hanized?), as recorded in history about Wang2 Zhao1 Jun1 and Han Wudi. The others were driven away. It is not surprising that after several hundred years, they actually showed up in Europe.
Hungary, which obviously is derived from the word "Hun", has a language of Uralic origin. It is quite certain that Hungary had heavy influence by the Huns. Interestingly, a Hungarian friend told me that Hungarians put their family first when they address people, which is distinctly different from other European culture, but similar to Chinese culture. Whether this is the influence of the original Huns or the Mongolian occupation later in 1200 AD is uncertain.
Huns are significantly different from Hakka in their cultural behavior. Although both Huns and Hakkas are migratory, Huns never settled in one place. They kept moving, conquering and moving. Huns mainly made their living by snatching from the conquered while Hakkas are agriculturally based and self-sufficient. Huns were illiterate and had no idea about civilization and knowledge preservation, while Hakkas have a tradition of strong emphasis on education and intellectualism. These two cultures are totally dissimilar and incompatible. Huns finally disappaered and was integrated with Europeans without a trace of their original "culture". Xiongnu in China also intermarried Han people. During the downfall of West Jin dynasty, the Han people cross the yangtze River and settled in southern China, bringing with them some Xiongnu soldiers and servants. While Xiongnu descendents established "Han" Kingdom in the north, gradually became sinicized. Han Kingdom was destroyed by Zhao kingdom (Jie2 ethnic group), which was in turn destroyed by Han people again.
If Hakka were actually sinicized "non-Han", then Hakka migration from north to south would not be "fleeing" the "northern foreign invasion" to "preserve" their own culture. Intead, Hakkas would have to be the actual "invaders" from the north trying to spread their own culture to the south. However, how a non-Han minority could preserve the Han culture better than the true Han people would be very difficult to explain. And it would be even more difficult to explain why the poems in Shijing (The Book of Poems) popular in the Chunqiu-Zhanguo period (pre-Qin) rhymes better with Hakka than Mandarin. Xiongnu although had attempted invasion of the northern kingdoms during the Chunqiu-Zhanguo period, they could hardly have had major settlement in "China" prior to Han dynasty.
The "theory" on Hun origin of Hakka was based on very fragmentary blood typing and DNA analysis done by Japanese and Russian researchers.
According to DNA typing by Hideo Matsumoto (1966) who gathered blood from China, Korea, Rusia, Taiwan, and Southeast Asia countries and found the folloiwng: [extracted from Kiang's book]
¡@
GM genes
¡@ AG AxG ABST AFBB
North Mongoloids (Koreans, Japanese, Hakka) 45% 15% 25% 15%
Malaysian, Polynesian, Southern Chinese
10%
5% 85%
Burma, Assam, Tibetan, Nepal, Malayo-Polynesian ~0% ~100%
The author thus concludes that Hakkas like Koreans and Japanese were from Baikal Lake as a subgroup of the Altaic people.
Similarity in bloodtype between Japanese, Hakka and Koreans, however, should not be the only way to classify Hakkas. In fact, using blood-type is not a good way to define a culture. Undoubtedly, the original Hakkas migrated under the pressure of the northern intruders. During this cultural conflict, there could be a small portion of the population derived from voluntary or involuntary marriages causing the inclusion of non-Han factors. However, blood-typing does not explain the deeply rooted Han culture of Hakka people. Xiongnu as an ethnic group "foreign" to Han culture and just starting to occupy northern China during Jin period. Never in history before was class distinction more obvious than Jin dynasty. The Royal Jin families and other Han aristocrats might have brought some surrendered Xiongnu soldiers and servants to the south. The number cannot be larger than Han. It was estimated 60% of the Han in the north crossed the Yangtze River. It is also doubtful that under such social discrimination, sinicized Xiongnu could received the proper education to evolve a large number of poets and other literati such as Han Yu, Du Mu in Tang dynasty, which is the dynasty immediately following the short-lived Jin dynasty.
After hundreds of years of migration and settlement in the south, Hakka people likely carry all kinds of genotypes. And there is no distinction any more on Man, Yi, Yong, Di, which are all Han people. Whether Hakkas were blood-related to Xiongnu is beside the point. Hakka culture should be basically Han culture and not Xiongnu culture. More discussion on this topic is available in the following section on Hakka and Xiongnu.
Last updated September 20,1996.

Hakka and She people in Fujian

The following may clarify some confusion about Hakka and "She" ethnic group (in GB font):

http://www.unn.com.cn/BIG5/channel2567/2660/2668/2673/200112/10/136109.html

畬族,自稱山哈或山達,意為居住在山里的客人. 但文獻記載中稱畬族為畬人,意思指在山里搭棚而住的人. 現有630378人,主要居住在福建, 浙江兩省的廣大山區,其余分布在江西, 廣東和安徽省境內. 其聚居點多為數十戶人家組成的自然村寨,因而形成典型的散居與雜居特點.

She people reside in a different area. Their housing structure is less sophisticated.

She group has her own tongue but no language. 99% of the She people communicate in Hakka.

畬族有自已的語言但無自已的文字. 百分之九十九的畬族使用漢語客家方言,通用漢文.

That is how Hakka was mistaken to be She.

歷史
對畬族來源說法不一. 有畬, 瑤同源于漢晉時代長沙武陵蠻說, 南蠻后裔說和古越人后裔說. 公元7世紀,就已居住在閩, 粵, 贛三省交界的山區,被稱為蠻, 蠻僚等. 南宋末年,14世紀起,部分遷到閩東, 浙南等山區.  明, 清時期大量出現在閩東, 浙南等地山區.

She people are found in east Fujian and south Zhejiang, which is different from Hakka in west Fujian, east Guangdong and south Jiangxi. This also led to the confusion of Hakka as Yao. Their time of migration to Fujian is almost identical with that of Hakka.

 

Hakka and Japanese Culture

Hakka culture might be a key component of Japanese culture.
It is hard not to notice that spoken Hakka dialect/language and Japanese language are closer than Mandarin and Japanese. Certain Japanese also resemble Shandong Chinese, distinct from the Ainu features of Hokkaido. Some Japanese friends point out that Hakkas look like Japanese. In fact the strong adherance to tradition and stubbornness are very characteristic of both Hakka and Japanese. The following is an account that could provide some support to the link between Hakka and Japanese culture.

Qin dynasty, Xu Fu, Yamoto, and Yayoi culture

The earliest record of Chinese travelling to Japan was in Qin dynasty when Qin Shihuangdi sent Xu Fu with a company of 3000 boys and girls to obtain longevity medicine. They started out from Shandong and reached what they called Peng Lai (Ying Zhou) which is Kyushu today. In Kyushu, there are significant traces of Xu Fu and his company including Xu Fu's tomb. Xu Fu's landing place should be around Fukuoka (The Hill of Fu), which was named in memory of him.
To be entrusted by Qin Shihuangdi with such an enormous task at that time, Xu Fu at 36 years of age was obviously a very capable person who was also higher up in the official rank. One theory is that he actually used this proposal to leave Qin. He brought a whole fleet of ships fully loaded with all kinds of supplies. It is also clear that Xu Fu had travelled back to China more than once to gather supplies. So, likely he brought more people over for the long trip. The crew he brought over stayed in Japan and became the Yamato clan. That is why some Japanese look like Shandong people, which should be Han/Hakka in genetic trait.
The history of Japan is very vague as to how the empire started. Only legends exist. Japanese culture has two major components: The Jomon culture and the Yayoi culture. The native Jomon culture was based on hunting and fishing, dating back to 10,000 years ago.
The Yayoi culture, which suddenly emerged around 250 BC - 250 AD as a very advanced culture, bears all the marks of Qin/Han culture including paddy rice cultivation, bronze mirror, coins, bronze weapons, bells, etc. The three major symbols of the Japanese Kingdom : bronze mirror, sword, and the royal seal stone are exactly the same as the Qin symbols. With no archaeological precedent of a gradual evolution, Yayoi culture has to be introduced from outside, and the most probable source was China. The Yayoi culture spread northeastward towards the Kanto plain and eventually became the mainstream of the Japanese culture.
Japan's celebration of the "birthyear" of Shen Wu Tian Huang (Ten-no) was held every 50 years (last held 1930 and 1980) as a very sacred ceremony simultaneously in a memorial celebration of Xu Fu. The beginning of Shen Wu Tian Huang was in the same time period of Xu Fu's landing in 219 BC. So these two are too coincidental not to be related. Shen Wu Tian Huang is supposed to be the Father of the Japanese kingdom. The celebration actually could be for the birthyear of the Empire rather than a person.

Did Xu Fu start out from Shandong or Guangdong?

There is also a hypothesis that Xu Fu started out from Guangdong because the spoken Japanese sounds like Guangdong dialect more than Mandarin. However, Qin Shihuangdi's active area was in the north. It would be hard to trust someone so far from the south. The climbing of Taishan (Shandong) by Qin Shihuangdi was well documented by Li Si's stone engravings on Taishan. So, Shandong is a place frequented by QSHD. It is natural that he might want to watch the ships set sail to fetch the longevity medicine too. As pointed out by a netter friend, Shandong dialect actually has some similarities to Hakka (see language page). If Hakka was indeed the official language commonly used in Qin-Tang dynasties, then that was the language Xu Fu and his crew spoke. So, it would be natural for the Japanese spoken language to bear some resemblance of Hakka.
For detailed evidence of Xu Fu's excursion to Japan, please consult a book by Yu Jin Hong : "Xu2 Fu2 Dong1 Du4 Zhi1 Mi2 Xin1 Tan4" (A New Study on the Riddle of the East Expedition by Xu Fu), Jiangsu People's Press. 1990.

Buddhism, Wei - Tang period

Buddhism was spread to Japan during Wei-Jin and Tang period. There were more and more interactions between the two countries. In Wei Zhi (history of Wei) the word "Wo" (Japanese "Wa", Mandarin "He") first appeared to represent the Japanese kingdom.
Hakka language was highly likely the official language in Tang dynasty (see language section about Tang poems). In Japan, much of the government bureaucratic system, including the names of bureaus still use the system developed from Qin-Han to Tang period.

Examples of ancient Han/Hakka culture and Japanese culture

Japanese culture retains many of the ancient Chinese custom including deep bowing, seating on tatami with low table (only after Song did high chairs become popular in China), the women's dress and headdress, the way pipa ( a pluck string musical instrument, Japanese call it biwa) is held at an angle rather than upright. These can be easily verified in the murals of Dun Huang, which were done from Wei-Jin to Tang. In terms of calligraphy, the early Japanese masters favored Wang Xi-Zhi (Jin) while the contemporaries follow Yan Zhen-qing (Tang).
Because Xu Fu went to Japan prior to the purge of Confucianism by Qin Shihuangdi, in some ways the earlier Han/Hakka culture was preserved in the original form more so in Japan.
So, Hakka has significant influence on Japanese culture.
The following is a letter from a Japanese friend supporting the similarity of Hakka and Japanese characteristics.
From inamura@po.infosphere.or.jpTue Feb 13 09:41:21 1996 Date: Mon, 12 Feb 1996 20:12:37 +0900 From: Kobo Inamura  To: "'sllee@infinet.com'"  Subject: Hakka culture and Japan  Dear Sir,  I read your article on the Hakka Home page with enthusiasm.  It is true that the characteristics of the independent, but probably the  most conservative minded or stubbornness to preserve one's culture are held  much in common by Hakka people and Japanese.  I met several students in Japan, who happened to come from Mainland China,  but their behavior seems to be different from ideology indoctrinated  students from Beijing.  The architecture of the round big house tradition still remains in this  country, even though fading out quickly.  I wish your study of the relations between Hakka and Japan further develop  into the future.  At least I have never heard of Hakka persons who did not feel comfortable to  stay in Japan and vice versa.  Probably one more thing in common is that they(Hakka and Japanese) are the  most enthusiastic book readers. Do you know any country where so much number  of books and titles are published? Japanese are reading books even in the  crowded trains.  Sincerely yours,  Kobo Inamura         
First posted December 5, 1995.
All rights reserved. S. L. Lee. 1995.
About the discovery of bronze mirrors as gifts to Himiko Empress by Wei Emporer.
---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Tue, 13 Jan 1998 14:23:54 +0900
From: Mark Hudson <mjhudson@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp>
To: sllee@asiawind.com
Subject: Mirrors in tombs at Nara]
Dear Dr. Lee, The following comments from the East Asian Arch list may be
of interest:
This news may interest some of the eaan subscribers.
Japanese archaeologists are very excited by the discovery of
33 bronze mirrors from Kurotsuka Kofun which is situated in
Tenri-city, Nara prefecture. 32 of the morrors are "sankakuen-
shinju-kyo, whose rim froms a triangle in cross-section and
decorated with deities and animals. This type of mirrors are
considered to be ones Queen Himiko received from the Wei
Emperor in AD239. All the sankakuen-shinju-kyo are put around
outside the coffin and only one mirror which belongs to another
type is situated inside the coffin. The Kurotsuka kofun has a
keyhole-shaped mound which is 130m in length. It is almost a
miracle that such a big tumulus has not been disturbed yet.
The excavation is conducted by Kashihara Archaeological Institute.
This discovery, which has just been reported on January 10th, surely
stimulated the "Yamataikoku" debate again not only in academics but
also among many Japanese archaeology and/or ancient history fans.
Naoko Matsumoto
Dept. of Archaeology
Kyushu University
Japan
>Dear Naoko Matsumoto,
>Thanks for your description of the exciting discovery of early bronze
>mirrors. For those of us who are not specialists in Japanese archaeology,
>would you please take a few minutes to discuss the meanings and implications
>of the "'Yamataikoku' debate"? I, for one, would appreciate it. A few
>sentences would help put the discovery into perspective.. Thank you.
>Regards,
>Jim Martin
>Richmond, VA
>804 740 0170
>hatch@richmond.infi.net
In response to Jim Martin's query, let me say -- as one who is very
interested in this issue -- that putting it into a few sentences is a bit
difficult, as the debate is complex and has a long history. I recently
examined its postwar archaeological development in the following:
Walter Edwards, "In Pursuit of Himiko: Postwar Archaeology and the
Location of Yamatai," MONUMENTA NIPPONICA 51(1): 53-79, 1996.
For a quick perspective on what is at stake, let me introduce the first
paragraph of the above, and then comment briefly on the significance of
mirrors.
"A stubborn yet engaging problem in the history of ancient
Japan is provided by an early Chinese text, the WEI CHIH or the
History of the Kingdom of Wei, compiled in the latter part of the
third century AD and chronicling the period from the founding of
the Wei kingdom in 220 AD until its end in 265. Considered one
of the most reliable of the Chinese dynastic histories, the WEI CHIH
includes, among descriptions of various peoples living to the east
of the kingdom, a passage known in Japanese as the Wajinden or the
account of the people of 'Wa' -- the name for Japan used by the
Chinese until the T'ang dynasty. The text of the Wajinden is short,
consisting of just under 2,000 Chinese characters, but its
descriptions are vivid enough to offer a convincing portrait of its
subject matter, the Japanese islands and their inhabitants, as they
were probably observed by Wei envoys in the middle of the century.
The Wajinden portrays third-century Japan as comprising more than
thirty countries, headed by one called 'Yamatai' and ruled by a
Queen Himiko; the image is that of a complex society with distinct
differences between persons of high and low status, and central
regulation over the distribution of goods. Although portions of
the text are believed to be drawn directly from the reports of
envoys who journeyed to Japan, the directions given for reaching
Yamatai cannot be read literally. Accordingly, the question of
Yamatai's location remains a mystery."
The WEI CHIH's most accurate portions are records of the diplomatic
exchanges held with Yamatai, beginning with the visit by envoys from
Himiko in 238 AD. They were sent back the following year with many
gifts for the Queen, including "100 bronze mirrors."
Given the ambiguity of the text regarding the precise location of
Yamatai within Japan, many Japanese scholars have attempted to approach
the issue arcaheologically. The two strongest candidates are the
regions of northern Kyushu, where the largest concentration of Late Han
period mirrors has been unearthed, and the region centering on Nara,
home of the ancient Japanese state of Yamato, which emerged by the 4th
century AD. A type of mirror, called "sankakubuchi (also read
'sankakuen') shinju_kyo_," which in a few examples bears Wei dates
of 238 and 239, has been found distributed widely over Japan, with the
greatest concentration in Nara and the surrounding region. It seems
beyond doubt that the distribution itself is related to the network of
political alliances that supported the early Yamato state, and it
is argued that distribution of mirrors by the central polity was a
key element in alliance building.
Of the 33 mirrors recently discovered at the Kurozuka mound here in
Tenri, at the heart of Yamato in Nara, 32 are of the sankakubuchi type,
thus lending strength to the arguments of those who support Yamato as
Yamatai, and see continuity between the foreign diplomatic exchanges
of the mid third century and the process of alliance formation within
Japan which led to widespread unification by the early fourth. There
is considerable controversy, however, on the status of the sankakubuchi
mirrors themselves, as to whether or not they were actually of Chinese
manufacture.
For further discussion, please see the above article. I also plan to
report on the recent discovery in an academic journal in the future.
Walter Edwards
Professor and Chair
Department of Japanese Studies
Tenri University
Tenri, Nara 632 Japan

Lan Fang Republic

(summary from the book Hakka people - Jews of the Orient by Kao Chung Xi. Summary digest compiled by Jonathan Teoh. Some spelling were revised according to Josef Widjaja, Oct 26, 1996)
Towards the end of the 18th century, Kwangtung Hakkas established a republic in Western Kalimantan which lasted 107 years and had 10 presidents.
The first president is Low Lan Pak. He was born in Kwangtung, Mei Hsien, Shih Pik Pao on the third year of Ching dynasty Chien Long emperor. He married a girl and had a son. But Hakka's custom usually do not take wife along for overseas trip. He left for Western Kalimantan alone to join the gold rush at that time.
He travelled along Han Jiang to Shantao, along Vietnam coastline, and finally landed in Western Kalimantan.
The sultan at that time, Panembahan believing that Chinese workers are hard working, brought in 20 Chinese from Brunei. The sultan Omar in Singkawang, also heard about Chinese diligence and use the lease land system to encourage Chinese to explore in his territory.
When Low Fan Pak reached Western Kalimantan, the Holland has not yet aggressively moved to Kalimantan. Along the coastal area, a lot of Java people and oceania's Bugis people settled down. Also, the Sultan's power were confined to the coastal area, the inland power belongs to the Dayak. The territories among Sultans were not well defined as well.
In the beginning of 1740, the Chinese numbered only a few tens. By 1770, the Chinese has grown to 20,000 strong. By blood clan or by the area they are from, the Chinese established Kongsi(company) to protect themselves.
In 1776, 14 kongsi banded together to form a He Soon 14 Kongsi in order to break the bottleneck of being grouped by area or by blood.
At that time Low Lan Pak established his own Lang Fan kongsi. He then united all the Hakkas in the San-Sin lake area and build a Mem-Tau-Er township and made it the headquarter of his united company.
At that time, Kun Tian(Pontianak) which located in the lower stream of Kapuas River was an important commerce area and was controlled by Sultan Abdul Laman. The upper stream of the river is controlled by the Dayaks. Kun Tian neighboring state Mempawah's Sultan tried to build a palace in the upper stream which led to the fighting between the 2 Sultans.
The Kun Tian Sultan asked Low Lan Pak for help. Since the palace is being built near the Lan Fang company territory, Low Lan Pak decided to help Kun Tian Sultan and defeated the Mempawah's Sultan.
The defeated Mempawah's Sultan then joined forces with the Dayaks and launched a counter-attack. Low Lan Pak again defeated Mempawah Sultan and this time marched North all the way to Singkawang. Singkawang Sultan and Mempawah Sultan signed a peace treaty with Low Lan Pak and Low Lan Pak's popularity increased dramatically. He was 57 then.
After that, Chinese and locals, turned to Low Lan Pak to seek protection, and when Kun Tian Sultan realized that he can not challenged Low Lan Pak, The sultan himself seek protection from Low Lan Pak.
Thus, Low Lan Pak established a government, using his company name, changing kongsi(company) to republic, and formed Lan Fang Republic in 1777, 10 years earlier than USA(1787). At that time people wanted Low Lan Pak to be Sultan, but he declined and take the post of governorship, similar to the president post.
From Qing dynasty's sea nation annals, it recorded that it is a place where Ka Yin people (Mei Hsien area) do mining, build road, establish its own nation, every year has ships reached ng Zhou and Chao Zhou area, doing commerce. >From its own Lan Fang Company annals, it indicated that every year it pays tribute to Qing dynasty like Annan (Vietnam).
The capital was in Che Wan Li. The Ta Tang Chon Chang(president) is elected by election. Both the president position and the vice president position has to be of Hakka from Ka Yin or Ta Pu area. The flag is a rectangle yellow flag with the word Lan Fang Ta Tong Chi. The president flag is a triangular yellow flag with the word Chuao (General). The high ranking officials dress in Chinese style while lower ranking officials dress western style clothing.
Low Lan Pak passed away on the second year of the republic. He has been in Borneo for 20 years. he 47th year of the republic during the reign of the fifth president Liew Tai Er, Dutch began its active expansion in Indonesia and occupied the South East region of Borneo. Lan Fang lose its autonomy and became a protected state of Dutch.
Then Dutch opened a colonial office in Kun Tian and intervened republic's affair. In 1884, Singkawang refused to be ruled by Dutch, and was attacked by the Dutch. The Dutch occupied Lan Fang Kongsi. Lan Fang Kongsi fought for 4 years but eventually was defeated, and its people fled to Sumatra. Fearful of strong reaction from Ching government, Dutch never declared that it occupied Lan Fang and let one of the descendent be a figure head. It was not until the formation of Republic of China in 1912 that Dutch formally declared its formal control of the area.
Those that fled to Sumatra regrouped in Medan. From there, some moved to Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. One of the descendent from these people is Lee Kuan Yew. While Hakkas are the minority in Singapore, it is the Hakkas that played an important part to establish the second Lan Fang company - Singapore.