Saturday, December 8, 2012

Some Pics of LSPJ Reunion Dinner Dec2012

Amazing I am able to post these pics of my ex-schoolmates when I was even there!!

Friday, December 7, 2012

Surgeon wants culprits to pay - General - New Straits Times

Dr Frank Ow Yang Abdullah suffered a deep slash above his left eye during the attack.

08 December 2012 |
last updated at 12:45AM

Surgeon wants culprits to pay

By ATIQA HAZELLAH | atiqahaz@nst.com.my

FIGHTING BACK: Robbery victim offers RM10,000 for capture of assailants

KUALA LUMPUR:

A RETIRED surgeon, who was robbed and slashed on the face, yesterday offered a RM10,000 reward for information leading to the capture of his four assailants.
Dr Frank Ow Yang Abdullah, 47, who suffered a deep slash above his left eye, said he was offering the reward to assist police in nabbing the culprits.
"I want the culprits to pay. Doctors have told me that I could go blind in my left eye.
"They are still monitoring my condition," he said at his house in Mutiara Damansara yesterday.
Dr Ow was attacked in Damansara Perdana on Wednesday afternoon after he came out of a hardware shop.
He was standing outside his car, talking on his handphone when a man came from behind and snatched his iPhone 4s before jumping on a waiting motorcycle.
Dr Ow ran after the suspects and grabbed them. A scuffle ensued but two others came on a motorcycle and slashed him. The four then escaped with the handphone.
Dr Ow was rushed to a nearby clinic before being referred him to the Pantai Medical Hospital.
The victim, who is also a landscape architectural consultant, is now recuperating at home.
"I am now hoping for the best that I would not lose my vision and that the culprits are caught."
He is still traumatised by the incident and urged those with information on the case to contact his wife, Lin, at 012-8783122 or lawyer Naraen at 012-2328703.
Petaling Jaya district police chief Assistant Commissioner Arjunaidi Mohamed said police are still investigating the case.
_________________________
http://www.nst.com.my/nation/general/surgeon-wants-culprits-to-pay-1.182936

Monday, December 3, 2012

Prada (1 item) for Sale

Contact: Ms Judy Neow
Mobile: +60125210919
Email: judy_jl85@yahoo.com

Judy says:
Hi All,
I have a unit of Prada 1336 for sale.

Retail price: RM12,231 (Msia), SGD4380, €1850
Our price: RM7,600

Condition: Brand New
Colour: Militare & Nero
Material: Lambskin
100% authentic.

Customer can inspect the product item before payment.

Currency: Malaysian Ringgit (RM)

Payment Mode:
1. Cash
2. Cheque
3. Internet Banking - account to account transfer acceptable BUT must be made on site and on the spot.

Let me know if anyone is interested. Thanks!

Monday, November 26, 2012

Academicians: M'sia may descend into 'kleptocracy' | theSundaily

http://m.thesundaily.my/node/127236

Academicians: M'sia may descend into 'kleptocracy'

Posted on 26 November 2012 - 08:55pm

Pauline Wong
newsdesk@thesundaily.com

KUALA LUMPUR (Nov 26, 2012): Malaysia may descend into a "kleptocracy" if corruption is not addressed effectively and comprehensively, academicians warned today.

They warned that the country would be ruled by the corrupt if graft is not tackled in a far-reaching manner which can be felt by the people.

"Kleptocracy", derived from the words "kleptomania" and "-cracy" or "rule" refers to a government filled with those who seek status and personal gain at the expense of the governed.

At a forum on "Eradicating Corruption: How successful have we been?" organised by the Institute of Democracy and Economic Affairs (Ideas) today, National University of Singapore Associate Professor Dr Syed Farid Alatas voiced the danger of kleptocracy taking root as corruption is not a random or occasional occurence but tends to be systemic.

He said "kleptocrats" are usually not mid-level officials who extort money as a means to make a living, but high-ranking officials who see it as a way to accumulate wealth.

Despite positive outcome from anti-corruption initiatives rolled out by the government through the Government Transformation Programme and the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission, Syed Farid said the effects were still not felt by the people.

"The people are still pessimistic about the way authorities are tackling corruption," said Syed Farid, a Malaysian who was formerly a Universiti Malaya lecturer.

Commenting on Malaysia's deteriorating position in the Corruption Perception Index, from 37 out of 80 countries in 2003, to 60 in 2011, Syed Farid urged the government to work towards the formation of a truly independent anti-corruption body.

"The MACC, for example has no power to initiate prosecution. The power to prosecute lies with the Attorney-General's Chambers – which is as such free to practise selective prosecution," he claimed.

Meanwhile, another panelist, Universiti Malaya Faculty of Economics and Administration Professor Dr Edmund Terence Gomez said grand corruption must be tackled from the top.

"We must first talk about devolution of power, where important institutions like the MACC and the AGC, and even the Judiciary must be independent.

"We have to do this soon, because degenerative corruption is becoming pervasive. Money is being channeled into the political system and we see this in permeation of money politics," he said.

He also called for a fair and just implementation of good and noble policies to eradicate corruption.

The forum was attended by former prime minister Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi under whose tenure the MACC was formed.

"When we talk of corruption, we must talk about the integrity of our judiciary. It must be a respected and respectable institution, able to prove that they are able to demonstrate that they are the highest institute of correctness and integrity," Abdullah said in his closing speech.

Calling for the strengthening of the judiciary to fight corruption, he said the judiciary itself must be above doubt.

"There must be good governance, or corruption will run rampant in the nation," he said.

Ideas also released yesterday its interim report "Combating Corruption: Understanding Anti-Corruption Initiatives in Malaysia'.

The report concluded that there is a disconnect between public perception and actual data on corruption, and that corruption cannot be measured by perception alone.

"Public perception as measured by the Corruption Perception Index implies that corruption is rampant and the situation is bleak. But data suggests that the problem is not as bleak as the CPI score has painted," the report stated.

The 55-page interim report which analysed the causes, cost and implications of corruption in Malaysia, also reviewed initiatives taken by the MACC under the National Key Result Area (NKRA) for combating corruption.

The report is funded by the MACC-NKRA division and other local and foreign sponsors.

Fake datukships, what next? | theSundaily

http://m.thesundaily.my/node/127234

Fake datukships, what next?
Posted on 26 November 2012 - 07:29pm
Azman Ujang

MALAYSIA likely holds the record for the most people conferred awards and medals. Most awards in other countries come in the form of medals without honorific titles. But here again, we have the most titles.

Our awards have for many years come from 14 sources – the 13 states and at the federal level on the occasion of the birthday of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. Over the last four years, awards have also been conferred in conjunction with the Federal Territory Day celebrations on Feb 1.

The jury is still out on whether we are giving too many awards especially those carrying the Datuk title. Selangor has put a cap on datukships by tightening the criteria for recipients. Johor confers the smallest number among the states, sometimes none at all, during the Sultan's birthday.

Last year, Sultan Muhammad V of Kelantan had expressed deep concern and dismay that a non-governmental organisation was conferring fake datukships. The NGO's office bearers claiming to be from the Kelantan palace were charging RM150,000 for each bogus datukship.

Kelantan palace legal adviser Datuk Sukri Mohamed was reported saying that the NGO, despite being deregistered, had "sold" Kelantan "Datuk" awards to 120 people over the last two years.

"People are willing to cough up as much as RM150,000 to get the honorific. In the latest case, the NGO held an investiture for the purpose at a hotel here (Kota Baru)," he told a press conference one and a half years ago. Following this "investiture", the palace had lodged three police reports and reminded the public that only the Sultan had the authority to award datukships and other titles and it was illegal for any other party to do so.

Despite the warning by Sukri in the presence of Kelantan CID chief ACP Lai Yong Heng at that press conference, apparently more title-hungry Malaysians have fallen victim.

Last week, the Kelantan palace's ceremonial chief, Datuk Abdul Halim Hamad, revealed that the fraudsters are still at work and the going price for the "titles" had gone up to RM200,000 each.

He said several people including some from Sarawak and Kuala Lumpur had been duped although no one had been authorised by the Sultan to confer the state's awards and medals for payment.

Halim advised those who had fallen prey to hand over the fake awards and medals to the authorities.

Some friends in Sarawak told me that they know of individuals who had bought fake Kelantan datukships, especially in the timber town of Sibu.

What is amazing is that despite getting the fake datukships with their eyes wide open, the "recipients" let the public know about it by throwing lavish parties.

"And to top it up, their friends and business associates take out full-page advertisements in the local Chinese newspapers to congratulate the recipients without any sense of guilt or shame," a prominent Sibu community leader told me.

The Sarawak edition of Sin Chew Daily reported last week on one such celebration in Sibu. In this case, the individual concerned was "awarded" the title of Dato' Sri Diraja from Kelantan but checks by the newspaper found no such title existed.

More than a year has passed since the Kelantan CID chief was reported as saying that investigations had started and statements had been taken from people who staged the "investiture".

Kelantan chief police officer Datuk Jalaluddin Abdul Rahman said over the weekend that police had almost completed investigations and would submit the papers to the deputy public prosecutor.

"We are in the process of gathering information from individuals who are resident in Sarawak," he said.

To me, the selling and buying of fake datukships is a serious crime that could well undermine the very institution of legitimate award-giving in the country.

It is hard to fathom what goes on in the minds of people who think nothing about buying fake titles and then telling the world about it. Of course, for the syndicates, it's just another way of making big money by cashing in on the frenzy among those craving to display titles on their name-cards.

Equally bizarre is a recent announcement by the police in Selangor that they were investigating 40 individuals, including a Tan Sri and several politicians, believed to have bought fake degrees from an education institute in Subang Jaya.

This followed police raids on two premises in Cheras and Subang Jaya where computers and other equipment believed to have been used to produce the fake scrolls were seized. The syndicates were believed to have raked in RM5 million by selling fake scrolls since 2003.

A total of 525 people, including VIPs, are believed to have "graduated" and received fake degrees without attending lectures, sitting for examinations or submitting papers. Don't ask me why someone with the title of Tan Sri would still resort to allegedly buying a fake degree.

The police should inform the public about the progress of investigations into this scam.

Hardly a day passes without the media reporting on cheating cases and scams, the latest being those run by foreigners in the country on student visas. They operate syndicates via the internet from the comfort of their rented homes.

Just how much more advice can anyone give to those among us who are still gullible? I would say, perhaps none.

Azman Ujang is a former editor-in-chief of Bernama. Comments: letters@thesundaily.com

Wednesday, November 21, 2012

Malaysian RM melts under sun

Just leaving your RM 1/= note in the car for 8 hours, the result is disastrous!  
 
 
Dont let yr money burn!
 
The money changer warned me about this. Its unbelievable.
 
 

Begin forwarded message:
 
Just leaving your RM 1/= note in the car for 8 hours, the result is disastrous!  
 
 

Educate Yourself : Are You A Malaysian Chinese ? Here's Your Story

Malaysian Chinese

Malaysian Chinese

Total population
6,960,900[1]
24.6% of the Malaysian population (2010)[2]
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Religion
BuddhismTaoismChristianityIslam
non-religious and others[3]
Related ethnic groups
Malaysian Chinese or Chinese Malaysians (Bahasa Malaysia: Kaum Cina Malaysia; Chinese: trad 馬來西亞華人, simp 马来西亚华人, pin Mǎláixīyà Huárén) are Malaysians of Chinese – particularly Han Chinese – descent. Most are the descendants of Chinese who arrived between the first and the mid-twentieth centuries. Malaysian Chinese constitute one group of Overseas Chinese and is home to the third-largest Chinese community in the world, after Thailand and Indonesia. Within Malaysia, they are usually simply referred to as "Chinese" and represent the second largest ethnic group in Malaysia after the ethnic Malay majority. As of 2010, approximately 6,960,000 Malaysians – almost a quarter of the population – self-identify as "Chinese".[4]
Malaysian Chinese are a socioeconomically well-established middle class ethnic group and make up a highly disproportionate percentage of Malaysia's professional and educated class, have a record of high educational achievement, a high representation in the Malaysian professional white collar workforce and hold one of the highest household incomes compared with most minority demographic groups in Malaysia.[5] Like in much of Southeast Asia, Malaysian Chinese are dominant in both the business and commerce sectors, controlling an estimated 70% of the Malaysian economy.[6] They are also one of the biggest taxpayers contributing to almost 90% of the national income tax and 60% of Malaysia's national income.[7][8][9][10]

History

First Wave

The first wave of 15th century Chinese settlers came during the Malacca Empire in the early 15th century. The friendly diplomatic relations between China and Malacca culminated during the reign of Sultan Mansur Syah who married the Chinese princess Hang Li Po. A senior minister of state and five hundred youths and maids of noble birth accompanied the princess to Malacca.[11] The descendants of these people mostly from Fujian province are called the Baba (men) and Nyonya (women).[12]

Second Wave

A much larger wave of immigrants mainly from Fujian and Guangdong provinces [12] came during the 19th century and early 20th century as coolies. Their immigration to Malaya was encouraged by the British who used the Chinese to work in tin mines and rubber plantations [13]. Some immigrants came freely to start up businesses in the booming economy, others as indentured labor under the "extreme credit ticket" system.[14]

Third Wave

A third and smaller wave came after the 1990s, mostly from northern China. These are mostly foreign spouses married to Malaysians and national sports coaches. At first, badminton coaches such as Han Jiang could only obtain a permanent residency after repeated rejections of their citizenship applications.[15] However, recently, diving coach Huang Qiang obtained his Malaysian citizenship.[16]

Origins

Basically, there are 4 main dialect groupings ie. Min, Hakka, Cantonese and Wu.

Min people

The Min people means those whose ancestors came from Fujian province and speak one of the Min languages. They form the largest dialect group in Malaysia.

Hokkien

The Hokkien (福建人) are the largest Chinese dialect group in Malaysia. Chinese settlers from the southern regions of Fujian constitute the largest group and generally identify as Hokkien. The bulk of Chinese settlers in Malaya before the 18th century came from Quanzhou, Amoy, and Zhangzhou and settled primarily in Penang and Malacca, where they formed the bulk of the local Chinese populace. More Hokkien settled in Malaya from the 19th century onwards and dominated the rubber plantation and financial sectors of the Malayan economy.[17] The bulk of the Hokkien-speaking Chinese settled in the Malay Peninsula and formed the largest dialect group in many states, specifically Penang, Malacca, Kelantan, Terengganu,[18] Kedah, and Perlis.[19] In Malaysian Borneo, the Hokkien make up a sizable proportion within the Chinese community and are primarily found in larger towns, notably Kuching and Sibu.[20] The Zhangzhou Hokkien migrated to the North Peninsula and the Quanzhou Hokkien migrated to the South Peninsula.

Teochew

Teochew immigrants (潮州人) from the Chaoshan region began to settle in Malaya in large numbers from the 18th century onwards, mainly in Province Wellesley and Kedah around Kuala Muda. These immigrants established were chiefly responsible for setting up gambier and pepper plantations in Malaya. More Teochew immigrated to Johor at the encouragement of Temenggong Ibrahim in the 19th century, and many new towns were established and populated by plantation workers from the Chaoshan region. The Teochew constitute a substantial percentage within the Chinese communities in Johor Bahru[21] and principal towns along the coasts of Western Johor (notably Pontian, Muar, and – to a lesser extent – Batu Pahat) as well as selected hinterland towns in the central regions of the state.[19] Many of them are the descendants of plantation workers which came to set up gambier and pepper plantations, following the administrative pattern of their countrymen in Johor.[22] Smaller communities of Teochew can also be found in other states, notably in Sabak Bernam in Selangor, where many Teochew settled down as rice agriculturalists,[19] as well as in the hinterlands of Malacca.[23]

Hainanese

Chinese immigrants from Hainan (海南人) began to migrate to Malaya and North Borneo from the 19th century onwards, albeit in much smaller numbers than the aforementioned speech groups. The Hainanese were employed as cooks by wealthy Straits Chinese families, while others were engaged in food catering business or the fishery business and formed the largest dialect group in Kemaman district of Terengganu[24] and Pulau Ketam (Selangor) as well as sizable communities in Penang and Johor Bahru.[25] Smaller communities of Hainanese are also found in Sarawak and Sabah, where they work as coffee shop owners and are mainly found in large towns and cities.[26]

Heng Hua

The Henghua (莆仙人), part of the Hokkien people, came from Putian. Their numbers were much smaller than the other Min Chinese from Fujian and they were mostly involved in the bicycle, motorcycle, and automobile spare parts industries.

Min Dong

Min Dong (閩東人) settlers from Fuzhou and Fuqing (福清) also came in sizable numbers during the 19th century and have left a major impact on the corporate industry in the 20th century. They speak a distinct dialect and are classified separately from the Hokkiens. A large number of Min Dongs in Malaysia are Christians. The Min Dongs form the largest dialect group in Sarawak–specifically in areas around the Rajang River,[27] namely the towns of Sibu, Sarikei and Bintangor. They also settled in large numbers in a few towns in Peninsular Malaysia, notably Sitiawan in Perak and Yong Peng in Johor.[28]

Hakka people

The Hakka people (客家人), literally 'the Guest people' came from both Guangdong and Fujian provinces. They form the second largest group of people after the Min people. Large numbers of Hakka settled in the western parts of Malaya and North Borneo and worked as miners in the 19th century as valuable metals such as gold and tin were discovered. Descendants of these miners formed the largest community among the Chinese in Selangor[29] and very large communities in Perak (specifically Taiping and Ipoh),[30] Sarawak, Sabah, and Negeri Sembilan.[31] As the gold and tin mining industries declined in economic importance in the 20th century, many turned to the rubber industry, and large numbers of Hakka settled in Kedah and Johor (principally in Kulai and Kluang).[32] In Sabah, where the majority of ethnic Chinese are of Hakka descent, many of them were involved in agriculture. They cut down the forests to make way for tobacco, rubber, and coconut plantations. In time, the Hakka community also dominated the state's industry and economy. However, even today, many Sabahan Hakkas are still involved in agriculture, especially those living in rural towns such as Tenom and Kudat where they are often the backbone of the local industry.

Cantonese people

The Yue Chinese who speak the same Yue language came from both Guangdong and Guangxi provinces and they can be subdivided into 3 subgroups. They form the third largest group of people after the Hakkas.

Guangfu

The Cantonese (廣府人) came from area around Guangzhou. They settled down in Kuala Lumpur of the Klang Valley, Ipoh of the Kinta Valley in Perak, Pahang as well as Seremban in Negeri Sembilan and Sandakan of Sabah. They started the development and turn these early settlement into principal towns. Most of the early Cantonese worked as tin miners. From the late 19th century onwards, as the tin mining industry declined in economic importance, the Cantonese as well as other Malaysian Chinese gradually shifted their focus to business and contributed much to the social and economic development in Malaya.

Taishanese

The Taishanese (台山人) came from Taishan and speaks the Sei Yap dialect.

Guangxi

The Yue speaker from Guangxi came in much smaller numbers than those from Guangdong. The largest concentration settled in Bentong, Mentakab and Raub, Pahang [33].

Wu people

The smallest group of people who came during the second wave are the Wu people from Zhejiang and Jiangsu. They were mostly involved in Chinese education, tailoring and construction [34].

Demographics

An early census of ethnic groups in the British Malay states, conducted by the British in 1835, showed that ethnic Chinese constituted 8 percent of the population and were mainly found in the Straits Settlements, while the Malays and Indians made up 88 percent and 4 percent of the population respectively.[35] Malaya's population quickly increased during the 19th and 20th centuries, although the majority of Chinese immigrants were males rather than females.[36] By 1921, Malaya's population had swelled to nearly three million, and the Chinese constituted 30 percent of Malaya's population while the Malays constituted 54.7% of Malaya's population, whose growth was fueled by immigrants from neighboring Indonesia (the Indians made up most of the remainder). While the Chinese population was largely transient, and many coolies returned to China on a frequent basis, 29 percent of the Chinese population were local born, most of whom were the offspring of first-generation Chinese immigrants.[37] The British government began to impose restrictions on migration during the 1930s, but the difference between the number of Chinese and Malays continued to close up even after World War II. The 1947 census indicated that the Malays constituted 49.5% of the population, compared to the Chinese at 38.4%, out of a total population of 4.9 million.[38]
Malaysian Chinese historical demographics (%)

1947
1957 [39]
1961
1970
1980
1991
2000 [40]
(38.4%)
2,667,452 (37.2%)
(36%)
3,564,400(37%)
(33.9%)
4,623,900 (28.1%)
5,691,900(26.1%)
6,960,900(24.6%)

By state & territory

The 2000 Population and Housing Census Report gives the following statistics (excluding non citizens):[43]
State
Chinese
Population
% of Population
柔佛
54,920
35.4%
吉打
12,569
14.9%
吉蘭丹
2,575
3.8%
馬六甲
22,392
29.1%
森美蘭
22,405
25.6%
彭亨
14,749
17.7%
霹靂
61,175
32%
玻璃市
992
10.3%
檳城
44,323
46.5%
沙巴
691,096
13.2%
砂拉越
852,198
26.7%
Selangor (including Federal Territory of Putrajaya)
雪蘭莪
166,018
30.7%
丁加奴
2,641
0.3%
Federal Territory
Chinese
Population
% of Population
吉隆坡
71,819
43.5%

States with large Chinese population

As of 2012, the majority of Chinese people are mainly concentrated in the west coast states of west Malaysia with significant percentage of Chinese (30% and above) such as Penang, Perak, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Johor.
Areas with significant Chinese populations
Kuala Lumpur
Kepong, Cheras, Bukit Bintang, Old Klang Road, Sri Petaling, Pudu, Segambut.
Selangor
Subang Jaya/USJ, Puchong, SS2, Petaling Jaya, Damansara Jaya/Utama, Bandar Utama, Serdang, Port Klang.
Year
Total population
Malay
Percentage
Chinese
Percentage
1891[44]
81,592
23,750

50,844

2011[45]
5.46 Million


1.45 Million
29 %
Penang
Penang island, Bukit Mertajam
Year
Total population
Malay
Percentage
Chinese
Percentage
1812[46]
26,107
9,854
37.7%
7,558
28.9%
1820
35,035
14,080
40.2%
8,595
24.5%
1860
124,772
71,723
57.4%
36,222
29.0%
1891
232,003
92,681
39.9%
86.988
37.5%
1970[47]
775,000
247,000
30.6%
436,000
56.3%
1990[48]
1,150,000
399,200
34.5%
607,400
52.9%
2005[49]
1,511,000
624,000
41.3%
650,000
43%
Perak
Ipoh, Taiping, Batu Gajah, Sitiawan
Year
Total population
Malay
Percentage
Chinese
Percentage
1891[50]



94,345
44.0%
1901[50]
329,665


150,239
45.6%
Johor
Johor Bahru, Kluang, Batu Pahat, Muar, Segamat

States with medium Chinese population

These are states where the Chinese are a significant minority (10% - 29.9%) such as Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Sarawak and Sabah.
The significant Chinese population areas (40% and above) for each state are
Malacca
Malacca City
Negeri Sembilan
Seremban, Rasah
Pahang
Bentong, Raub, Mentakab, Kuantan
Sarawak
Kuching, Sibu, Bintulu, Miri, Sarikei, Sri Aman, Marudi, Lawas, Mukah, Limbang, Kapit, Serian, Bau
Sabah
Kota Kinabalu and Sandakan. Tawau, Kudat and scattered regions in the south (most notably Beaufort and Keningau) also have small but significant Chinese communities

Languages

A governmental statistic in 2000 classifies the dialect affiliation of the ethnic Chinese in Malaysia:[51]
Dialect
Population[52]
1,848,211
1,679,027
1,355,541
974,573
958,467
380,781
373,337
249,413
Although their ancestral origin are different but due to intermarriages between the different linguistic groups and also due to regional influences, different regions are formed each with its own defacto lingua franca to facilitate communication between the different Chinese dialects in the same region.
Furthermore, the younger generations have generally lost command of their own subdialect (e.g. Hainanese, Hing Hua) and prefer to speak the lingua franca in each region.

Hokkien

Northern Peninsular Malaysia Penang, Kedah, Perlis, East Coast, Taiping are predominantly Penang Hokkien speaking.
Klang, Malacca and Johor groups are also predominantly Hokkien speaking but the variant spoken is Southern Malaysian Hokkien which has a similar accent to Singaporean Hokkien. Thus, Sarawak Chinese speak their own accent of Hokkien in various places in Kuching.
In Sibu and Sitiawan, Fuzhou (or Foochow) is widely spoken but it is not a lingua franca.

Hakka

Hakka, specifically the Huiyang (惠陽, Hakka: Fui Yong) variant, is the main Chinese dialect in the East Malaysian state of Sabah. According to the 1991 census, 113000 Sabahans identified themselves as being of Hakka descent. This is a clear majority over the Cantonese, of whom there were 28000, making them a distant second.[53] This makes Sabah the only state in Malaysia where Hakka is the predominant dialect among the local Chinese.
The Chinese in Ipoh and to a lesser extent the Chinese in certain other parts of Perak, are largely Hakka-speaking at home, but use Cantonese as a lingua franca when doing business and eating out, due in part to the dominance of Cantonese cuisine. This is also true in many other Hakka-populated areas throughout Malaysia meaning even in predominantly Hakka areas the language is rarely heard on the streets even though ethnic Hakkas may be in clear majority.
In other regions of Malaysia, there are significant numbers of Hakka people, for example in the town of Miri in Sarawak and in major cities in Peninsular Malaysia. However, many do not speak Hakka due to the stronger influence of Hokkien and Cantonese in Peninsular Malaysia. The variants of Hakka most widely spoken in Malaysian states other than Sabah are the Ho Poh and Moiyan (Meixian) variants, which are very seldom spoken in Sabah itself.

Cantonese

Central Peninsular Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Petaling Jaya, Subang Jaya, Seremban, Ipoh & Kuantan are predominantly Cantonese speaking.
Cantonese is also the main dialect in Sandakan. The only district dominated by Cantonese dialect in Johor is Mersing.
Many Chinese of other dialect subgroups are able to understand and/or speak Cantonese at various levels due to the influence of movies and television programs from Hong Kong, which are aired on the TVB channel through the Astro pay television service. The Hakkas, especially, are able to pick up Cantonese with ease due to the similarities between the Hakka and Cantonese dialects.

Teochew

Teochew was the lingua franca of the Chinese community in Johor Bahru until the 1970s.[54]
The dialect is also widely used in coastal towns of Johor namely Muar, Batu Pahat and Skudai, also in Sungai Petani, Kedah.
Teochew dialect is also mainly spoken in the island of Pulau Ketam and many coastal towns of Selangor.

Mandarin

Mandarin is the medium of instruction in Chinese-medium schools in Malaysia. As such, Malaysian Chinese throughout Malaysia who attended Chinese-medium schools understand and speak Mandarin. Many Chinese-educated Malaysian Chinese families have taken to speaking Mandarin with their children due to the notion that other Chinese dialects are growing increasingly redundant in an era where Mandarin is increasing in importance. This has led to the emergence of a community of young Chinese who are fluent in Mandarin but unable to speak their native Chinese dialect, understand but do not speak it, or prefer not to speak it in public.
As a result of influence from the Mandarin-dominant media from Singapore and proximity of Johor to Singapore (Johor and parts of Malacca are able to receive Singapore's free-to-air TV), southern Peninsular Malaysia, especially Johor has become predominantly Mandarin-speaking.

English/Malay

A significant number of older generation Malaysian Chinese educated before 1980 were educated entirely in English so they are not fluent in any Chinese dialects and prefer to speak in English mixed with a smattering of Chinese words. The older generation Baba/Nyonya was only fluent in Malay mixed with a smattering of Hokkien words.

Education

Malaysian Chinese can be categorized to be educated in 3 different streams of education i.e. English educated, Chinese educated and Malay educated.
Public education in Malaysia is free. There are two types of public schools at the primary level: the Malay-medium National schools and the non-Malay-medium National-type schools. National-type schools are subdivided into Chinese-medium and Tamil-medium schools. For the secondary level, only Malay-medium National schools currently exist. There used to be English-medium National-type schools at the primary and the secondary levels as well, however they had been assimilated to become Malay-medium National schools since the 1980s. In all schools, Malay (the national language) and English are compulsory subjects. By law, primary education is compulsory. Malaysian Chinese citizens can choose to attend any school regardless of medium of instruction, although virtually none choose to attend Tamil-medium schools due to cultural differences.[55]
At the tertiary level, most Bachelor's degree courses offered at public universities are taught in the national language, that is, Bahasa Malaysia, while post-graduates studies are usually conducted in English. English is used as the primary medium of instruction at most private higher educational institutions.[55]
About 90% of Malaysian Chinese children in Malaysia today go to Mandarin-medium primary schools, while only a small group of 10% or so attend Malay medium primary schools. However, most Malaysian Chinese (more than 95%) switch to Malay medium schools for their secondary education. The rationale behind this is because Malay-medium secondary schools are free while Mandarin-medium secondary schools are fee paying.[56]
The switch from Mandarin medium primary school to Malay medium secondary school for the majority of Malaysian Chinese has resulted in many school dropouts as students are unable to cope with the difference in the medium of instruction. The Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) pointed out an estimated 25% of Chinese students dropout before reaching the age of 18; the annual dropout rate is estimated to be over 100,000 and worsening. Certain dropouts become apprentices in workshops, picking up skills like plumbing or motor-repair. Others eager to make a quick buck find themselves involved in illicit trades, such as peddling pirated DVDs or collecting debts for loan sharks.[56] However in October 2011, Deputy Education Minister Wee Ka Siong indicated that the 25% dropout rate may not be accurate as many Chinese students choose to pursue their studies at private schools or overseas such as in Singapore, while the Malaysian government only collates student data from the national school system, giving a false impression of a high dropout rate.[57]
During the colonial period and for years after independence, English schools originally established by the British colonial government were regarded as more prestigious than the different vernacular schools. As a result, a significant number of older Malaysian Chinese who attended school before the 1970s are English-educated. Beginning in the 1970s, English-medium teaching was replaced with Malay-medium teaching in English national-type schools, which became Malay-medium national schools.[58] Since then, most English-educated parents send their children to Chinese primary schools while a few choose to send their children to Malay-medium national schools. Those who went to national schools would be known as Malay-educated Chinese.
The eventual objective of making Malay the main medium of instruction in schools as stated in the Razak Report (the fundamental report for the education policy of Malaysia), along with the assimilation of English national-type schools into Malay national schools, had led to Chinese education groups being vigorously protective of the Chinese education system in Malaysia. In 2003 to 2011, the Malaysian government introduced an experimental policy of using English as the language of instruction for Science and Mathematics at primary and secondary schools. The decision sparked concerns and protests among Chinese education groups. A compromise was reached that Chinese primary schools would teach Science and Mathematics in both Chinese and English. In July 2009, the education minister announced that the medium of instruction for Science and Mathematics would revert back to the original languages of instruction starting from 2012.[58]

Name Format

Main article: Chinese name
Non-Mandarin
Before Mandarin gained popularity among Malaysian Chinese in the late 20th century, Malaysian Chinese romanized their names according to the their respective Chinese dialects. For example, the Hakka name would be written "Yap Ah Loy", and the Hokkien name 林梧桐 would be written as "Lim Goh Tong".
Mandarin
In line with the rise of Mandarin as a lingua franca among Malaysian Chinese in the later half of the 20th century, younger Malaysian Chinese tend to retain the dialectical pronunciation of their surname while using the Mandarin pronunciation for the given name.
For example, the Cantonese name 陳永聰 (s 陈永聪, p Chen Yongcong) is romanized as Chan Weng Choong.
Still more recently, the given name will be written in the official pinyin romanization, although often retaining the Malaysian Chinese tendency to treat each character as a separate word. Chan Yung Choong might start writing his name as Chan Yong Cong.
English
Some Malaysian Chinese also adopt an English given name. English given names are normally written before the Chinese name. For example, goes by the name Michelle Yeoh Choo Kheng.
Muslims
Non-Muslims who marry a Muslim in Malaysia must convert to Islam. Such converts normally adopt a Muslim name to use in addition to their original name. These are not usually the long Arabic names but just a shorter one – e.g., Abdullah Tan Yew Leong.

Religion

Religions of Chinese Malaysians [59]
Religion


Percent

83.56%
11.05%
3.41%
0.66%
0.23%
Other religions
0.13%
0.95%
A majority of the Chinese in Malaysia claim to be Buddhist or Taoist, though the lines between them are often blurred and, typically, a syncretic Chinese religion incorporating elements of Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism and traditional ancestor-worship is practiced, with the fact that each individual follows it in varying degrees. Thus, Chinese Buddhism is traditionally embraced by the Chinese which is brought over from China and handed down over the generations of Malaysian Chinese born in Malaysia.
About 11.05% are Christian (Mainstream Protestants, Catholics and other denominations including a fast-growing number of Evangelicals and Charismatics). This is largely due to the influences of Western educated Malaysian Chinese who went overseas either for studies or work[citation needed].
A small number (0.66%) profess Islam as their faith due mostly to the compulsory conversion to Islam should a Chinese marry a Muslim in Malaysia. Nonetheless, the figure is rather understated due to the fact that most of the Chinese-Muslim individual is easily absorbed with the larger Malay majority population, due to identification of a common religious background, effective assimilation and intermarriage.

Intermarriage

The Chinese in Malaysia maintain a distinct communal identity and rarely intermarry with native Muslim Malays for religious and cultural reasons. According to Muslim Laws, the Chinese partner would be required by law to renounce their religion and adopt the Muslim religion. Most Malaysian Chinese consider their being "Chinese" at once an ethnic, cultural and political identity.
However, there are many who have intermarried with Malaysian Indians, who are predominantly Hindu. The children of such marriages are known as Chindians.[60] Chindians tend to speak English as their mother tongue.
In the Bornean states of Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysians of mixed Chinese-Native parentage ('native' referring to the indigenous tribes in those states, e.g. Iban and Melanau in Sarawak as well as Kadazan and Murut in Sabah) are referred to as "'Sino'" (e.g. Sino-Iban, Sino-Kadazan). Depending entirely on their upbringing, they are either brought up to follow native customs or Chinese traditions. A small minority forgo both native and Chinese traditions, instead opting for a sort of cultural anonymity by speaking only English and/or Malay and not practicing both Chinese and tribal customs. Offsprings of such an intermarriage may or may not be considered a Native, and those granted Native status may also have the status revoked at any time as seen by the Sabah state government revoking the Native certificate of state opposition leader Jimmy Wong Sze Phin despite his grandmother being a native.[61]

Food

Main article: Cuisine of Malaysia
Malaysian Chinese eat all types of food which includes Chinese, Indian, Malay and Western cuisines. Some Malaysian Chinese are vegetarians, as they may be devoted followers of Buddhism, while others do not consume beef, especially those worshipping the Goddess of Mercy (Guan Yin). Malaysian Chinese food contains similarities and differences with the Chinese food in China.

China

The cuisine of Malaysian Chinese food are similar to the food in Southern China as they are primarily from the Fujian cuisine, Cantonese cuisine and Hakka cuisine.

Local

However, there are local inventions such as Loh Mee (滷麵), thick noodle in clear gravy found only in the Klang Valley and dark gravy in Penang. Bak Kut Teh (肉骨茶) originated from Klang and not China.[62] Influences from the spicy Malay cuisine can be found in local inventions such as Curry Mee, Curry Chicken and Chili Crab. The influence from the Peranakan cuisine can be found in dishes such as Laksa and Mee Siam.

Socioeconomics

Education

More Chinese Malaysian students in each cohort obtain at least five 'O' level passes, which enables them to progress to higher education. The proportion has increased steadily from 44% in 1980 to 84% in 2005 compared to a national average of 81% and was the highest out of the 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia.[63] Similarly, the proportion of Chinese Malaysian 'A' level students who obtained at least two'A' and two 'AO' level passes at the GCE 'A' Level examination (including General Paper) has increased from 68% in 1980 to 92% in 2005 compared to a national average of 91% and was the highest out of the 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia.[63] The proportion of a Chinese P1 cohort admitted to post-secondary institutions (Institutes of Technical Education, Polytechnics, Junior Colleges/Centralised Institutes) has more than doubled, from 65% in 1990 to 96% in 2005.[63] In addition, the proportion of Chinese P1 cohort entering local publicly-funded tertiary institutions (polytechnics or universities) has increased from 13% in 1980 to 69% in 2005. Both percentages were above the national average and was the highest out of the 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia. The number of Chinese Malaysian primary school dropouts has decreased steadily over the years.[63] Out of every 1,000 Malay primary school students, there were just 0.1 Chinese Malaysian dropouts in 2005, compared to 0.3 nationally.[63]

Employment

Overall ethnic share of total employment in Malaysia is roughly proportionate to the number of Chinese in the Malaysian population.[64] The Chinese are more likely to be involved in commerce and the modern sectors of the Malaysian economy. Between 1970 to 1995, Malaysian Chinese share of the white collar labor force fell from 62.9% to 54.7% in the administrative and managerial category.[65]
Malaysian Chinese have a large presence in many skilled occupations that are disproportionate to the Malaysian population.[5] Despite comprising nearly a quarter of the Malaysian population, 54.7% Malaysian Chinese work in administrative and managerial jobs while their presence in professional & technical was proportionate to the percentage of Chinese in the Malaysian population.[66] In 1988, Chinese Malaysians made up 58% of the Malaysian white collar workforce providing a disproportionate percentage of Malaysia's doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, accountants, and engineers well exceeding their respective population ratios compared to Bumiputera.[5] Ethnic Chinese are estimated to comprise a bulk of Malaysia's professional and educated class, as well as accounting for 61% of private sector administrative and managerial positions.[67]
According to a February 2011 The Impact of Ethnicity on Regional Economic Development study by Albert Cheng, that in 2008, 46.2% of Chinese Malaysians work as registered professionals compared to 41.2% for Bumipetera. Chinese Malaysian participation in the white-collar labor force showed a significant decrease from 61.0% in 1970 to just 48.7% in 2005 but overall 2008 figure still remains the highest registration percentage among all major ethnic groups in Malaysia.[68]

Economics

Ethnic Chinese are estimated to control 60% of Malaysia's national income.[69] As a result, they are the biggest taxpayers among all ethnic groups in the country.[9] Chinese Malaysians also contribute almost 90 percent of the country's income tax.[10][70] While the national home ownership rate in Malaysia was 91.7% in 2005, 92.9% of Chinese Malaysian households owned the home they lived in which was the second highest after rate after the Malaysian Malays.[63] In terms of housing affordability, Chinese Malaysians could afford houses priced between RM120,000 and RM180,000.[71]
In 2002, Chinese Malaysians held the lowest poverty rates among major ethnic groups in Malaysia with a rate of 1.5% compared with the bumipetera rate of 7.3%.[72][73] For the Malaysian Chinese community, the mean income rose from 394 RM in 1970 to 4,279 RM in 2002, which was an increase of 90.8% and the figure was 80.0% above Bumiputera and 40.5% above Malaysian Indians.[72] Mean Monthly Household Income by Ethnic Group in Peninsular Malaysia was 4279 RM per month for Chinese Malaysian compared with 2376 RM per month for Bumiputera.[74] Due to the large Chinese presence in the Malaysian business sector, Chinese Malaysian income is typically received from business and economic activities rather than salaried employment which inflates the relative income gaps between the Chinese and Bumipetera and is also another reason why Chinese household income greatly exceeds the those of Malays and Malaysian Indians. Chinese households have also mean household incomes 2.77 times and 177% higher than those of Malay households.[75] In 2005, Chinese Malaysian household income continued to remain the highest out of all three major ethnic groups in Malaysia, with a monthly household income of 4,570 compared to the monthly national average of 4,320.[63] Income distributions show dramatic differences among the three main ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia (Malays, Chinese, and Indians) and between the rural and urban subgroups. Chinese incomes are larger, on the average or median, and are more unequally distributed than those of Malays or Indians. However, because relatively more of Chinese income is received from market activities, broadening the definition of income reduces the relative difference between Chinese households and the other two ethnic groups. Since the distribution of Chinese income is more highly skewed than that of Malays and mean household market income-yields a conclusion that Chinese income is 177% higher than Malay income. Mean Chinese business income is almost five times as large as mean Malay business income, but median business income for Malay households exceeds median Chinese business income from business ventures.[75] Malaysian Chinese have the highest household income among the 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia. According to Sulaiman Mahbob, as of December 2007, the monthly average household income was at 4,437 ringgit.[76][77][78][79]
Since early settlement during the 15th century, Chinese Malaysians are considered one of the wealthiest ethnic groups in Malaysia and have been more prosperous than other ethnic communities in Malaysia.[80] In February 2001, Malaysian Business released its list of the 20 richest Malaysians. Sixteen of the 20 and 9 of the top 10 were ethnic Chinese. A number of other wealthy Chinese outside the top 20 also control well-managed corporations.[81] According to a 2011 Forbes magazine list, eight out of the top ten richest Malaysians are ethnic Chinese.[82][83][84] According to economic data compiled by the Malaysian daily Nanyang Siang Pau in 2012, ethnic Chinese make up 80 percent of Malaysia's top 40 richest people.[85]

Trade and industry

Chinese as a group have usually averaged considerably higher incomes than the surrounding ethnic groups in the countries in which they lived. Chinese Malaysians also continue to owned 85 percent of Malaysian retail outlets and played a major role in the development of the tin, petroleum, and rubber industry. Chinese-owned mines produced nearly two-thirds of the tin in Malaysia. Many used their savings to open small businesses, where some grew into large enterprises. Typically, many of their enterprises have been family-controlled and family-run.[86] Malaysian Chinese entrepreneurs operate as a more urban business community, dominating trade and commerce, primarily tin mining and agriculture.[72] They are also dominant in both business and commerce sectors in Malaysia where 70 percent of publicly listed companies were under Chinese ownership.[87][88] Insurmountable economic mobilization by the Chinese in Malaysia are estimated to control 50% of the construction sector, 82% of wholesale trade, 58% of retail trade, 40% of the manufacturing sector, and 70% of the small scale enterprises.[89] In 2002, Chinese Malaysian share of the overall Malaysian economy stood at 40% since the implementation of the Malaysian New Economic Policy and the Chinese share in Malaysian non-agricultural sector fell from 51.3% to 45.9% from 1970 to 1980.[90][91][92] Despite efforts to reduce the share of Chinese entrepreneurial dominance, the overall Chinese share of the Malaysian economy increased to 60% in 2008.[8] In 1964, Sino-Malaysians accounted for 91.7% of the private corporate holdings in Malaysia and ownership of the Malaysian gravel pump and small scale tin mines were completely placed in the hands of ethnic Chinese entrepreneurs.[93] By 1970, glaring economic disparity between the Malays and Chinese was wide as Malaysian Chinese entrepreneurs were estimated to control 26% of the assets in the corporate sector, 26.2% of the manufacturing and 92.2% of the non-corporate sector.[94] Chinese Malaysian businessmen are estimated to occupy 34.9% of Malaysia's LLC companies, the highest percentage of ownership among the 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia.[66][68] In order to seek extra funding and seed money for potential business start-ups, many Malaysian Chinese entrepreneurs have turned to the Malaysian Stock Exchange for business expansion and potential IPOs.[95] Chinese Malaysians are estimated to control 62% percent of the stock market. In 1995, the seven biggest investors in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange were all ethnic Chinese, with 90 percent of the smaller and younger companies on the second exchange of the KLSE are also Chinese controlled.[96] Home ownership and the utilization of property as an investment is also prevalent in the Malaysian Chinese community.[90] Real estate investing is a common business and a source of wealth for Malaysian Chinese real estate entrepreneurs as it doesn't only provide a steady source of monthly from rental proceeds or a hedge against inflation, but also raises the standard of living for Malaysians who aren't in the right economic position to purchase a home for themselves. In 2005, Malaysian Chinese owned 69.4% of the business complexes, 71.9% of all commercial and industrial real estate, as well as 69.3% of all the hotels in Malaysia reflecting Chinese control over the various business and commercial establishments around the nation.[90]
However, the underprivileged section of the Malaysian Chinese continue to be excluded from affirmative-action programmes despite their genuine need for support in obtaining employment, government subsidized education, and housing. This perception of a zero-sum game amongst the races has unfortunately fueled protests by frustrated sections of the hitherto quiescent community - who consequentially faced a heavy-handed response from the authorities. Recently, the Malaysian government has at least pledged to change this by increasing assistance to needy Malaysians regardless of race, creed, or national origin.[97]

Non bumiputera

Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia grants the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia) responsibility for "safeguard[ing] the special position of the 'Malays'and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak and the legitimate interests of other communities" and goes on to specify ways to do this, such as establishing quotas for entry into the civil service, public scholarships and public education.[98]
Partly in line with the constitution, Malaysia has devised a long-standing policy of providing affirmative action to Bumiputeras (ethnic Malays and indigenous people of East Malaysia) which spans over four decades. Affirmative action is provided in the form of the Malaysian New Economic Policy or what is now known as the National Development Policy [99] Under such affirmative action, various concessions are made to Bumiputeras. Amongst many other concessions, 70% of seats in public universities are to be allocated to Bumiputeras, all initial public offerings (IPOs) must set aside a 30% share for Bumiputera investors and monetary support were provided to Bumiputeras for entrepreneurial development.[5]